IndyCar Series 2011

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Le championnat IndyCar Series 2011 s’est déroulé du 27 mars au 16 octobre 2011 et a été remporté pour la quatrième fois par Dario Franchitti sur une monoplace du Chip Ganassi Racing.
Le titre constructeur a été décroché par son équipe, alors que Scott Dixon et Will Power ont respectivement remporté le championnat sur ovale et le championnat sur circuit automobile/urbain.
Après avoir mené longtemps bataille à J evercare fabric shaver small. R. Hildebrand filtered water bottle, James Hinchcliffe est parvenu à décrocher le titre de “Rookie of the year”.

Cette saison a été marquée par le décès de Dan Wheldon, vainqueur des 500 miles d’Indianapolis cette année, lors de la course de Las Vegas.

Les courses ont eu lieu dans douze États américains différents, ainsi qu’au Brésil, au Japon et au Canada.
10 épreuves se sont déroulées sur circuit automobile ou urbain et 8 sur ovale. Celle du Texas était répartie sur 2 courses successives running belts water.

Tous les pilotes roulaient dans une voiture munie du châssis Dallara, motorisée par Honda et chaussée par Firestone.

Les points sont distribués de la manière suivante:

Henry Wolf (engraver)

Henry Wolf (1852–1916) was a French-born wood engraver who lived and worked in the United States during his most influential work period and until his death.

Henry Wolf was born on August 3, 1852 in Eckwersheim, France. He lived in Strasbourg and studied under Jacques Levy and exhibited in Paris. Henry Wolf moved to New York City in 1871, where he created wood engravings of works by Gilbert Stuart, Enrique Serra, Frank Weston Benson, Howard Pyle, Henry Salem Hubbell, John Singer Sargent, A. B. Frost, Jan Vermeer, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Aimé Morot and Édouard Manet. Many of his engravings were published in Scribner’s Magazine,, Harper’s Monthly, and Century Magazine. In 1896 he started engraving his own artwork reusable water bottle brands. He exhibited 144 wood engravings at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. He was awarded the Exposition’s Grand Prize in printmaking that year cool sports water bottles. He died in home in New York City on March 18, 1916 3 ways to tenderize meat. His works are held in the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

What Made the Red Man Red?

What Made the Red Man Red?” is a song from the 1953 Disney animated film Peter Pan, in which “the natives tell their story through stereotypical dance while singing”. Contemporary audiences may consider it racist and “offensive” due to its “exaggerated stereotypes”. Although a similar depiction was displayed within J M Barrie’s original play, later adaptions have reimagined the Indians, while the Disney version—and this song in particular—were said to have “doubled-down on racial stereotypes”.

It has been compared to the song “Savages” from the 1995 Disney film Pocahontas, which also contains negative lyrics regarding Native Americans.

Jonathan “Candy” Candido, who played the role of the Chief in Peter Pan, said the following about the song in an interview with MousePlanet:

“When I recorded [the song], I sang it with 10 bass singers from around Los Angeles. And if you hear the song, you’ll notice my bass voice is almost twice as low as theirs … You know, when you see the Indian chief, he’s fat. I’m not fat. And he’s real tall, and I’m kind of short. But you notice he looks like me. Also, he has the same dark eyebrows, and he plays with his hands like I do when I perform … Ward Kimball’s animation of the chief is full of the little visual gags that he always threw into his work, oftentimes just to keep himself amused. I especially love seeing how wildly exaggerated the chief’s mouth shapes become custom youth football uniforms, yet always manage to work well within the frame of his face.”

Peter Pan and Wendy come across the Indians (who refer to themselves as “Injuns”) once arriving in Neverland. Wishing to learn more about them, The Lost Boys ask the Indians three questions: “What Makes the Red Man Red?”, “When Did He First Say ‘Ugg’?” and “Why Does He Ask You ‘How?'”. This song is performed by “the big-nosed, guttural Chief character” accompanied by his tribesmen. The Indians pass the peace pipe to the children as they tell their tale, the implication being that “they used to be normal and white but just blushed”.

In reality, Hau is Lakota for “Hello” and the skin colour of Native American people is due to genetics,[citation needed] among other untruths[citation needed] featured in the song.

Writer Kim McLarin of NPR described it as a “bouncy, drum-heavy song”, while the Best of Disney called it a “labored routine”.

Complex notes that in the 21st century, “you can’t just ask people ‘What Makes the Red Man Red?'”, and commented on the Lost Boys’ musical number around this very question: “Jeez, you racist little monsters, no wonder you’re orphans.” Althouse said the song has “obvious political correctness problems”. AllDay notes that “the one time they break into song” is the only time the Native Americans do not speak in broken English throughout the film. In an article named Caught on Film: The Racist Ghosts of Disney’s Past, DivineCaroline wrote “The best part of the song is when the singers say that their version is the right one, ‘no matter what’s been written or said.'” Bustle deemed the song a “big ol’ pile of racism”. MediaDiversed said the “horror that was the song” served to reinforce stereotypes and racist attitudes. The site Great Indian Moments From Pop Culture deemed the “insipid tune” the “worst” of the “troublesome Native stereotypes” in Disney’s 1953 film Peter Pan. It noted “the chorus, with its ‘nonsense’ words, simply reduces indigenous languages (and semantics) to sheer gibberish”.

The Guardian wrote that the song is “exactly as alarming to modern eyes and ears as its title suggests”. Minnesota Playlist argued that this “infamous” number “upped the racist ante”. RantLifestyle notes “the chief…is a walking stereotype”, and summed up their view of the song by saying “Oh dear”. David Martinez, author of American Indians and Film wrote “My jaw hit the ground when I heard this song and saw these ‘redskins’ hopping around and making fools of themselves. Granted it was only a cartoon, but it was one in which the animators took the liberty of demeaning an entire race in the name of entertainment.” The Narcycist referenced the song in an article about the use of subtle racism in film. The Hollywood Reporter deemed the song “infamous”. Sasha Houston Brown, Santee Sioux tribe member and adviser to the American Indian Success Program at Minneapolis Community and Technical College, said upon seeing the scene: “I remember seeing it and not having the skills to understand why it made me feel embarrassed. What does that do to a child’s formation of identity, even if it’s subliminal and subconscious? The message is, ‘You’re not human. You’re a trend. You’re something that can be commodified and bought and sold.'” An Opinion article written at The Daily Revelle notes the problem of depicting Native Americans in this way: “Disney has always been there to teach proper morals”…from an early start, Americans are fed these ideas, and the topic is never properly taught to correct them”; they continued “If you’re teaching American history, put the time and effort into respectfully educating others on the extraordinary people that were here first.”

TOR argued the “cartoon war dance” and song goes even further than Barrie’s play by “stat[ing] that the Indians are not just savages, but sexist savages, who force Wendy to go fetch firewood while the other boys have fun”. Wired said the “really awkward scene” features a “thoroughly appalling song, arguably more racist than anything in the notorious Song of the South”. The blog Racial Stereotyping notes “Not only does this video stereotype Native Americans but it also stereotypes women”. Banon’s Roar wrote “Watching now its cringe inducing. Every line is some kind of gag about how their skin is red and they make weird noises. Compare it even to the Crows from Dumbo. They were timely caricatures as well, but their jokes were not aimed at humiliating themselves.” LeapToad said “If any other ethnic group were treated this way, this film would have quietly disappeared, much like Song of the South has.” Though Hollywood.com listed the 1952 film version as the third best Peter Pan adaption, it recommend that viewers “forget that whole “What Made the Red Man Red?” part, for obvious reasons” how to wear football socks like a pro. MouseTracksOnline said the song ” veers precariously into politically incorrect territory”

When the film has been syndicated on television, the native scene has often been removed.[citation needed]

In the 1954 stage musical, the issue of including the controversial depiction of Native Americans was avoided altogether by casting a blonde actress named Sondra Lee to perform ‘Ugg-a-Wugg’ how tenderize beef, “a drum number of caricatured dance moves and lyrics of inarticulate babble”.

Because of the perceived racial insensitivity of the characters and this song in particular by the time the film Return to Neverland was released in theatres in 2002, The Indians were not featured as characters in that movie.

During production of the 2015 Warner Bros. live-action film Pan, the film’s developers made a deliberate choice to distance the character of Tiger Lily from Native American heritage and remimagine them as lacking any particular ethnicity, in order to “avoid the racial insensitivities of…Disney’s 1953 animated film, which infamously featured the song ‘What Made the Red Man Red?'”.

Redding, Falkirk

Coordinates:

Redding is a village within the Falkirk council area in Central Scotland. The village is 2.1 miles (3.4 km) southeast of Falkirk, 1.9 miles (3 small stainless steel thermos.1&nbsp jersey for football;km) south-southwest of Grangemouth and 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Polmont.

At the time of the 2001 census, Redding had a population of 1,954 residents.

On a hill beyond Redding is a stone that is called Wallace’s stone, marking out the spot from which Sir William Wallace, after his quarrel with Sir John Stuart, one of the Scottish chiefs, is said to have viewed the Battle of Falkirk, from which he had been compelled to retire, and to have witnessed the defeat of the Scottish army.[citation needed]

In 1923, the small mining community of Redding was the scene of one of the worst disasters in the history of the Scottish coalfield, which claimed the lives of 40 men. At 5.00am on Tuesday 25th September 1923 an inrush of water flooded the pit. The Sir William Wallace Lodge of the Grand Lodge of Scotland Free Colliers still march every year on the first Saturday in August in memory of the men who lost their lives in the disaster.

Сипре, Морган

Франция

24 апреля 1991(1991-04-24) (25 лет)

Мелён, Франция

182 см

Ванесса Джеймс

Клаудия Тевенард

Жан-Роллан Ракль

Лине Хаббад

Париж

Морган Сипре (фр. Morgan Ciprès; род. 24 апреля 1991 года в Мелён, Франция) — французский фигурист, выступающий в парном катании. С Ванессой Джеймс он многократный чемпион Франции (2013 — 2016 годы) и бронзовый медалист зимней Универсиады 2015 года. По состоянию на 15 февраля 2015 года пара занимает 11-е место в рейтинге ИСУ.

Морган Сипре родился в городе Мелён 1991 году. С юных лет начал заниматься фигурным катанием и стал достигать определённых положительных результатов в мужском одиночном катании. В 2010 году он представлял Францию на юниорском чемпионате мира. В этом же году прекратила существование французская пара Ванесса Джеймс / Янник Бонер; Ванесса пыталась найти себе партнёра. После долгих поисков она сделала предложение Моргану Сипре.

Выступать вместе они начали с 2011 года и на национальном чемпионате сразу стали вице-чемпионами. На международных стартах и дома они вскоре стали ведущей парой Франции. Сумели выступить в Сочи на Олимпийских играх.

В послеолимпийский сезон пара сумела впервые завоевать медали на крупных международных соревнованиях, они в Испании завоевали бронзовые медали на зимней Универсиаде.

Новый сезон пара открыла в Германии на турнире Небельхорн, где оказались с бронзовыми наградами. Далее пара выступала на этапе Гран-при Trophée Bompard, однако meat pounder, после коротких программ, соревнования были отменены из соображений безопасности (в столице Франции произошла серия терактов). Не совсем удачно фигуристы выступили на заключительном этапе Гран-при в Нагано, где оказались на шестом месте. На европейское первенство в Братиславу фигуристы выступили значительно лучше прошлого чемпионата, повторили своё прежние европейское место и улучшили свои достижения не только в сумме, но и произвольной программе. В середине марта спортсмены приняли тренировочное участие в Кубке Тироля в Инсбруке, где заняли второе место. В начале апреля в Бостоне на мировом чемпионате французская пара сумела пробиться в десятку лучших мировых пар и улучшила свои прежние достижения в короткой программе.

(с В. Джеймс)

1911: Mlle Aysagher и Charles Sabouret • 1912: Анита дель Монте и Луи Магнус • 1913—1914: Симон Пуажад и Франсис Пижерон • 1921: Симон Пуажад и Франсис Пижерон • 1922—1923: Ивонн Буржуа и Франсис Пижерон • 1924—1933: Андре Жоли и Пьер Брюне • 1934: Эльвира Барбье и Луи Барбье&nbsp football jersey blank;• 1935: Андре Жоли и Пьер Брюне • 1936: Эльвира Барбье и Луи Барбье • 1937—1938: Suzy Boulesteix и Жан Анрион • 1939: Soumi Sakomot и Guy Pigier • 1942: Denise Fayolle и Guy Pigier • 1946—1949: Дениз Фавар и Жак Фавар • 1950—1951: Жаклин дю Бьеф и Тони Фон • 1953: Nadine Damien и Jean Vives • 1954: Colette Tarozzi и Jean Vives • 1956: Мишель Аллар и Ален Жилетти • 1957: Colette Tarozzi и Жан Вивес • 1958—1959: Энни Харш и Жан Вивес • 1960—1962: Мишлин Жубер и Филипп Пелисье • 1964: Мишлин Жубер и Ален Трюилле • 1965—1966: Noëlle Santerne и Yvan Le Théry • 1967—1968: Fabienne Etlensperger и Jean-Roland Racle • 1969—1970: Мана Сабо и Пьер Сабо • 1971—1974: Флоранс Кан и Жан-Роланд Ракль • 1975: Pascale Kovelmann и Jean-Roland Racle&nbsp cool stainless steel water bottle;• 1976: Caroline Verchère и Jean-Roland Racle • 1977—1979: Sabine Fuchs и Xavier Videau • 1980: Hélène Glabek и Xavier Videau • 1981—1982: Nathalie Tortel и Xavier Videau • 1983: Nathalie Tortel и Xavier Douillard • 1984—1986: Sylvie Vaquero и Didier Manaud • 1987: Charline Mauger и Benoît Vandenberghe • 1988: Valérie Binsse и Jean-Christophe Mbonyinshuti • 1989: Сурия Бонали и Бенуа Ванденберг • 1992: Лине Хаббад и Сильван Приве • 1993: Мари-Пьер Лере и Фредерик Липка • 1994—2003: Сара Абитболь и Стефан Бернади • 2004: Сабрина Лефрансуа и Жером Бланшар • 2005—2007: Марилен Пла и Янник Бонер • 2008—2009: Аделин Канак и Максимин Койя • 2010: Ванесса Джеймс и Янник Бонер&nbsp stainless steel water bottle safety;• 2011: Аделин Канак и Янник Бонер • 2012: Дорья Попова и Бруно Массо • 2013—2015: Ванесса Джеймс и Морган Сипре

Laguna de Castilla

Vorlage:Infobox Ortsteil einer Gemeinde in Spanien/Wartung/localidad

Laguna de Castilla, teils auch nur La Laguna, ist ein Ort am Jakobsweg in der Provinz León der Autonomen Gemeinschaft Kastilien-León, administrativ ist er von Vega de Valcarce abhängig.

Bezogen auf den Jakobsweg ist Laguna der letzte Ort in Kastilien-León, bevor man die galicische Grenze vor O Cebreiro überschreitet.

„A Escuela“ in Laguna de Castilla: Letzte Pilgerherberge in Castilla y León

Wegstein am Jakobsweg, der zwischen Laguna und O Cebreiro den Beginn der Autonomen Region Galicien anzeigt

← Vorhergehender Ort: La Faba 2 km | Laguna de Castilla | Nächster Ort: O Cebreiro 3 km →

Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port | Valcarlos | Puerto de Ibañeta | Roncesvalles | Burguete | Espinal (Navarra) | Bizkarreta-Gerendiain | Lintzoain | Erro-Pass | Zubiri | Larrasoaña | Zuriáin&nbsp tenderise steak;| Iroz | Zabaldica | Villava | Burlada | Pamplona | Cizur Menor | Guenduláin | Zariquiegui | Alto del Perdón&nbsp glass from bottle;| Uterga | Muruzábal | Obanos | Puente la Reina | Mañeru | Cirauqui | Lorca | Villatuerta | Estella-Lizarra | Kloster Irache | Azqueta | Villamayor de Monjardín | Los Arcos | Sansol | Torres del Río | Viana | Logroño | Navarrete | Nájera | Azofra | Cirueña | Santo Domingo de la Calzada | Grañón | Redecilla del Camino | Castildelgado | Viloria de Rioja | Villamayor del Río | Belorado | Tosantos | Villambistia | Espinosa del Camino | Villafranca Montes de Oca | Kloster San Juan de Ortega | Agés | Atapuerca | Cardeñuela Ríopico | Orbaneja Ríopico | Villafría | Burgos | Villalbilla de Burgos | Tardajos | Rabé de las Calzadas | Hornillos del Camino | San Bol | Hontanas | Kloster San Anton de Castrojeriz | Castrojeriz | Puente de Itero | Itero de la Vega | Boadilla del Camino | Frómista | Población de Campos | Villarmentero de Campos | Villalcázar de Sirga | Carrión de los Condes | Calzadilla de la Cueza | Ledigos | Terradillos de los Templarios | Moratinos | San Nicolás del Real Camino | Sahagún | Calzada del Coto | Bercianos del Real Camino | El Burgo Ranero / Calzadilla de los Hermanillos | Reliegos | Mansilla de las Mulas | Villamoros de Mansilla | Villarente | Arcahueja | Valdelafuente | León | Trobajo del Camino | Virgen del Camino | Valverde de la Virgen | San Miguel del Camino | Villadangos del Páramo | San Martín del Camino | Hospital de Órbigo | Villares de Órbigo | Santibáñez de Valdeiglesias | San Justo de la Vega | Astorga | Murias de Rechivaldo | Santa Catalina de Somoza | El Ganso | Rabanal del Camino | Foncebadón | Cruz de Ferro | Manjarín | El Acebo | Riego de Ambrós | Molinaseca | Ponferrada | Columbrianos | Camponaraya | Cacabelos | Villafranca del Bierzo | Pereje | Trabadelo | La Portela de Valcarce | Ambasmestas | Vega de Valcarce | Ruitelán | Las Herrerías | La Faba | Laguna de Castilla | O Cebreiro | Liñares | Hospital da Condesa | Padornelo | Alto do Poio | Fonfría | O Biduedo | As Pasantes | Ramil | Triacastela | Samos / Calvor | Sarria | Barbadelo | Mercado de Serra | Brea | Ferreiros | Vilachá | Portomarín | Gonzar | Ligonde | Palas de Rei&nbsp lemon and lime squeezer;| San Xulián do Camiño | Leboreiro | Furelos | Melide | Boente | Castañeda (Galicien) | Ribadiso | Arzúa | Santa Irene | Amenal | Lavacolla | Monte de Gozo | Santiago de Compostela

CIA activities in Syria

CIA activities in Syria since the agency’s inception in 1947 have included coup attempts and assassination plots, and in more recent years, extraordinary renditions, a paramilitary strike, and funding and military training of forces opposed to the current government.

On 30 March 1949, Col. Husni al-Za’im seized power from President Shukri al-Quwatli in a bloodless coup d’état. There are “highly controversial” allegations that the American legation in Syria—headed by James Hugh Keeley Jr.—and CIA engineered the coup. Assistant military attaché (and undercover CIA officer) Stephen J. Meade, who became intimately acquainted with Colonel Za’im several weeks prior to the coup and was considered Za’im’s “principal Western confidant” during Za’im’s brief time in power, has been described as the coup’s architect—along with the CIA’s Damascus station chief, Miles Copeland Jr. Copeland later authored several books with “extraordinarily detailed accounts of CIA operations in, among other countries, Syria, Egypt, and Iran,” considered “one of the most revelatory set of writings by a former U.S. intelligence officer ever published.” However, Copeland’s memoirs have a strong literary quality and contain many embellishments, making it difficult to gauge the historical accuracy of the events he describes. Moreover, Copeland’s account of the Syrian coup in his 1989 autobiography The Game Player: Confessions of the CIA’s Original Political Operative contradicts the earlier version presented in his 1969 The Game of Nations: The Amorality of Power Politics.

In The Game of Nations, Copeland suggested that Syria—as the first former colony in the Arab world to achieve complete political independence from Europe—was perceived in Washington as a test case for America’s “capacity for exerting a democratizing influence on Arab countries.” According to Copeland, the CIA attempted to “police” the July 1947 Syrian national elections, which were marred by fraud, sectarianism, and interference by neighboring Iraq and Transjordan. When these elections “produced a weak, minority government” under Quwatli—the stability of which was called into question by Syria’s defeat in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War—Keeley and other U.S. officials became concerned “that Syria was on the verge of complete collapse,” which could have empowered the Syrian Communist Party or other “radicals” (such as the Ba’ath Party and the Muslim Brotherhood). As a result, Keeley became amenable to a military coup “as a way of safeguarding … the long-term prospects of democracy in the country.” At Keeley’s behest, Copeland wrote, Meade “systematically developed a friendship with Za’im … suggested to him the idea of a coup d’état, advised him how to go about it, and guided him through the intricate preparations in laying the groundwork for it.”

Available evidence, however, suggests that Za’im was in little need of prodding from the U.S. According to the British military attaché in Syria, Za’im had been contemplating a coup since March 1947—over a year before he was introduced to Meade on November 30, 1948. Shortly before the coup, Za’im tried to win Western sympathy by producing a list of individuals, including Keeley, that were supposedly “communist assassination targets,” but U.S. officials were skeptical. While Za’im directly informed Meade of the upcoming coup on March 3 and March 7, the U.S. was not the only foreign power apprised: Za’im notified British officials around the same time. In his conversations with Meade, Za’im outlined his progressive political program for Syria (including land reform) as well as the communist threat, concluding “[there is] only way to start the Syrian people along the road to progress and democracy: With the whip.” Za’im struck a different tone in conversations with the British, citing his desire to establish friendlier ties with Britain’s major allies in the area—Iraq and Transjordan. In The Game Player, Copeland provided new details on the American assistance to Za’im’s plan, expounding that Meade identified specific installations that had to be captured to ensure the coup’s success. However, Copeland also acknowledged that Za’im had initiated the plot on his own: “It was Husni’s show all the way.” Douglas Little notes that U.S. assistant secretary of state George C. McGhee visited Damascus in March, “ostensibly to discuss resettling Palestinian refugees but possibly to authorize U.S. support for Za’im.” In contrast, Andrew Rathmell describes this hypothesis as “purely speculative.” Once in power, Za’im enacted a number of policies that benefited the U.S.: He ratified the construction on Syrian territory of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (Tapline) (which had been stalled in the Syrian parliament), banned the Communist Party, and signed an armistice with Israel.

The CIA made plans to overthrow the Syrian government because it would not cooperate with Western anticommunism. Early in 1956, the plan called for use of the Iraqi army; it then shifted its focus to agents with Syria itself.

National Security Council member Wilbur Crane Eveland, CIA official Archibald Roosevelt, and Michail Bey Ilyan, former Syrian minister, met in Damascus on 1 July 1956 to discuss a US-backed ‘anticommunist’ takeover of the country. They made a plan, scheduled for enactment on 25 October 1956, in which the military would

take control of Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, and Hamah. The frontier posts with Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon would also be captured in order to seal Syria’s borders until the radio stations announced that a new government had taken over under Colonel Kabbani, who would place armored units at key positions throughout Damascus. Once control had been established, Ilyan would inform the civilians he’d selected that they were to form a new government, but in order to avoid leaks none of them would be told until just a week before the coup.

The CIA backed this plan (known as “Operation Straggle”) with 500,000 Syrian pounds (worth about $167,000) and the promise to support the new government. Although Secretary of State John Foster Dulles publicly opposed a coup, privately he had consulted with the CIA and recommended the plan to President Eisenhower.

The plan was postponed for five days, during which time Israel invaded Egypt. Ilyan told Eveland he could not succeed in overthrowing the Syrian government during a war of Israeli aggression. On 31 October, John Foster Dulles informed his brother Allen Dulles, the Director of the CIA: “Re Straggle our people feel that conditions are such that it would be a mistake to try to pull it off”. Eveland speculated that this coincidence had been engineered by the British in order to defuse US criticism of the invasion of Egypt.

DCI Allen Dulles continued to file reports about the dangers of Communism in Syria. The CIA planned for another coup, code-named “Operation Wappen” and organized by Kermit Roosevelt. Syrian military officers were paid off in anticipation. Bribes reportedly totaled $3,000,000.

The coup failed when some of these officers revealed the plan to the Syrian intelligence service. They turned in the CIA bribe money and identified the officers who had tendered it. Robert Molloy, Francis Jeton, and Howard E. “Rocky” Stone were all deported. The US State Department denied Syrian accusations of a coup attempt, banned Syria’s ambassador to the US, and withdrew its own ambassador from Syria. The New York Times backed the US government’s claim and suggested that the story had been fabricated for political purposes.

After the coup attempt was exposed, the US government and media began describing Syria as a “Soviet satellite”. One intelligence report suggested that the USSR had delivered “not more than 123 Migs” to the country Rose Bracelet. Reporter Kennett Love later said that “there were indeed ‘not more than 123 Migs’. There were none.” In September 1957, the US deployed a fleet to the Mediterranean, armed several of Syria’s neighbors, and incited Turkey to deploy 50,000 troops to its border. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles suggested that the US sought to invoke the “Eisenhower Doctrine” of retaliating against provocations, and this intention was later confirmed in a military report. No Arab state would describe Syria as a provocateur, and these military deployments were withdrawn.

Explicit documents from September 1957 reveal a plot, including collaboration with the British intelligence service MI6 in a plot, to assassinate three Syrian officials in Damascus. These targets were: Abdel Hamid al-Sarraj, head of military intelligence; Afif al-Bizri, army chief of staff; and Khalid Bakdash, leader of the Syrian Communist Party—all figures who had gained politically from exposure of “the American plot”. Details about this conspiracy were revealed by a “Working Group Report” uncovered in 2003 among the papers of British Defence Minister Duncan Sandys:

Once a political decision is reached to proceed with internal disturbances in Syria, CIA is prepared, and SIS [MI6] will attempt, to mount minor sabotage and coup de main incidents within Syria, working through contacts with individuals

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The two services should consult, as appropriate, to avoid any overlapping or interference with each other’s activities… Incidents should not be concentrated in Damascus; the operation should not be overdone; and to the extent possible care should be taken to avoid causing key leaders of the Syrian regime to take additional personal protection measures.

In the “Preferred Plan” drafted by the Working Group Report, the US and UK intelligence agencies would fund a “Free Syria Committee” and supply weapons to paramilitary groups including the Muslim Brotherhood. Syria would be “made to appear as the sponsor of plots, sabotage and violence directed against neighbouring governments”. These provocations would serve as the pretext for an outside invasion, led theoretically by the Kingdom of Iraq.

The Working Group Report stated that it would be “impossible to exaggerate the importance of the psychological warfare aspects of the present exercise”, meaning that it would be necessary to convince people in Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt that a state of emergency was at hand. Radio transmitters were deployed and the CIA prepared to send advisors to allied countries. The plan was developed quickly and re-used elements of the CIA’s 1954 coup in Guatemala as well as its 1953 effort in Iran.

The “Preferred Plan” was aborted after renewed diplomatic engagement by Saudi Arabia and Iraq, followed by direct military support to Syria from Egypt, made a regional war seem unlikely. However, the Syria Working Group provided a model for other CIA interventions— most immediately, in Indonesia.

In 1983, President Assad of Syria signed a peace and friendship treaty with the Soviet Union and some have suggested that the coincidental uprising by the Muslim brotherhood in Syria was a CIA operation to overthrow Assad for his pro-Soviet policies.

The CIA used Syria as an illicit base of operations to torture ghost detainees, as part of a program known as extraordinary rendition. This program was established in the mid-1990s and expanded in the 2000s.

One target of this program, Syrian-born Canadian Maher Arar, was detained in New York and sent to Syria, where he was interrogated and tortured. Arar, a telecommunications engineer who has been a Canadian citizen since 1991, was asked to confess his connections to al-Qaeda and to terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. Arar was held for more than a year; after his release, he sued the U.S. government. According to a U.S. Judge (and confirmed by Canadian investigators):

During his first twelve days in Syrian detention, Arar was interrogated for eighteen hours per day and was physically and psychologically tortured. He was beaten on his palms, hips, and lower back with a two-inch-thick electric cable. His captors also used their fists to beat him on his stomach, his face, and the back of his neck. He was subjected to excruciating pain and pleaded with his captors to stop, but they would not. He was placed in a room where he could hear the screams of other detainees being tortured and was told that he, too, would be placed in a spine-breaking “chair,” hung upside down in a “tire” for beatings, and subjected to electric shocks. To lessen his exposure to the torture, Arar falsely confessed, among other things, to having trained with terrorists in Afghanistan, even though he had never been to Afghanistan and had never been involved in terrorist activity.

Arar alleges that his interrogation in Syria was coordinated and planned by U.S. officials, who sent the Syrians a dossier containing specific questions. As evidence of this, Arar notes that the interrogations in the United States and Syria contained identical questions, including a specific question about his relationship with a particular individual wanted for terrorism. In return, the Syrian officials supplied U.S. officials with all information extracted from Arar; plaintiff cites a statement by one Syrian official who has publicly stated that the Syrian government shared information with the United States that it extracted from Arar. See Complaint Ex. E (January 21, 2004 transcript of CBS’s Sixty Minutes II: “His Year In Hell”).

The U.S. initially invoked the “state secrets privilege”. When legal proceedings began anyway, the Ashcroft Justice Department was ridiculed for arguing that Arar was in fact a member of Al Qaeda. The Canadian government has apologized to Arar but the U.S. has not admitted wrongdoing.

Journalist Stephen Grey has identified eight other people tortured on behalf of the CIA at the same prison (“Palestine Branch”) in Syria. The CIA imprisoned a German businessman, Mohammad Haydr Zammar, and transferred him from Morocco to the Syrian prison. They subsequently offered German intelligence officials the opportunity to submit questions for Zammar, and asked Germany to overlook Syria’s human rights abuses because of cooperation in the War on Terror.

According to a 2013 report by the Open Society Foundation, Syria was one of the “most common destinations for rendered suspects” under the program. Former CIA agent Robert Baer described the policy to the New Statesman: “If you want them to be tortured, you send them to Syria. If you want someone to disappear – never to see them again – you send them to Egypt”.

On Sunday, 26 October 2008, the CIA conducted a paramilitary raid on the town of Sukkariyeh in eastern Syria. The raid involved “about two dozen U.S. commandos in specially equipped Black Hawk helicopters”, according to reporters for the New York Times. The U.S. said it had killed an Iraqi who was supplying insurgents from across the Syrian border.

Syria accused the U.S. of committing “terrorist aggression” and said that eight civilians had been killed. The US responded that all people killed in the raid were “militants”. The Syrian government closed an American cultural center and the US-sponsored Damascus Community School in response. The incident also led to a mass rally in Damascus in which protestors criticized the raid. (The Syrian government supported the rally but deployed riot police to protect the US buildings from angry protestors.)

Following the raid, the Times revealed the existence of a secret 2004 military order authorizing actions by the CIA and the Special Forces in 15–20 countries, including Syria. U.S. officials acknowledged that they had conducted other raids in Syria since 2004, but did not provide details.

Wikileaks has reported that the US government has been covertly funding the Syrian opposition since 2006. Special Activities Division teams are speculated to have been deployed to Syria during the uprising to ascertain rebel groups, leadership and potential supply routes.

In early September 2013, President Obama told U.S. Senators that the CIA had trained the first 50-man insurgent element and that they had been inserted into Syria. The deployment of this unit and the supplying of weapons may be the first tangible measure of support since the U.S. stated they would begin providing assistance to the opposition.

L’Atlantide (1921 film)

L’Atlantide is a 1921 French-Belgian silent film directed by Jacques Feyder, and the first of several adaptations of the best-selling novel L’Atlantide by Pierre Benoit.

In 1911, two French officers, Capitaine Morhange and Lieutenant Saint-Avit, become lost in the Sahara desert and discover the legendary kingdom of Atlantis, ruled by its ageless queen Antinéa. They become the latest in a line of captives whom she has taken as lovers, and who are killed and embalmed in gold after she has tired of them. Morhange however Stainless Steel Mug 12 oz, already grieving for a lost love and planning to take holy orders, is indifferent to Antinéa’s advances and rejects her. Angered and humiliated, she exploits the jealousy of his friend Saint-Avit and incites him to kill Morhange. Appalled by what he has done, Saint-Avit is helped to escape by Antinéa’s secretary Tanit-Zerga, and after nearly dying in the desert from thirst and exhaustion, he is found by a patrol of soldiers. Saint-Avit returns to Paris and tries to resume his life, but he is unable to forget Antinéa. Three years later he returns to the desert and sets out to find her kingdom again, accompanied by another officer to whom he has told his story.

Much of the narrative is contained within a long flashback as Saint-Avit recounts his first visit to Antinéa; other shorter flashbacks are used within this framework, creating a fairly complex narrative structure.

When Jacques Feyder obtained the rights to film Benoit’s novel, he took the radical step of insisting that the film should be made on location in the Sahara, a strategy which no film-maker had previously used for a project on this scale. His whole cast and crew were taken to Algeria, first to the Aurès Mountains and then Djidjelli on the coast, for 8 months of filming. Even the interiors were filmed in an improvised studio in a tent outside Algiers, with sets by the painter Manuel Orazi.

Feyder initially borrowed production money from his cousin who was a director of Banque Thalmann. By the time of the film’s release in October 1921, the costs had escalated to an unprecedented figure of nearly 2 million francs, and its financial backers rapidly sold their rights to the distributor Louis Aubert. The film soon became a huge success however and earned a great deal of money for Aubert; it ran at a Paris cinema for over one year and was widely sold abroad. Aubert re-released the film in 1928 and it had a renewed success.

The celebrity of the source novel as well as the much-reported circumstances of the production ensured that the film received plenty of attention on its release. Despite the 3-hour running time and its sometimes slow pace, it proved enormously popular with the public and put Jacques Feyder into the front rank of French film-makers. The critical reception of the film was more mixed, with particular objections made against the central performance by Stacia Napierkowska; she had been a dancer and well-known film actress for many years, but was now past her prime, and Feyder regretted engaging her to portray the captivating Antinéa, especially when he found that she had gained an inappropriate amount of weight. However the undoubted success of the film was the grandeur of its locations and the photography of the desert landscapes. A much-quoted remark by Louis Delluc was not wholly sarcastic: “There is one great actor in this film, that is the sand”.

L’Atlantide was one of the earliest feature films to depict the French colonial presence in North Africa

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, and led the way for a series of other films made during the 1920s which emphasised the romantic and exotic aspects of the colonial experience; later examples in this colonial tradition included Le Bled (1929), Le Grand Jeu (1934), and La Bandera (1935).

A DVD version of the film was released by Lobster Films/MK2 in 2004, based on a restored copy at the Nederlands Filmmuseum in Amsterdam. This reveals the very high quality of the film’s photography, and it includes a detailed scheme of colour tinting throughout the print. Its running time is about 30 minutes shorter than the reported length of the original. It has a new musical soundtrack by Eric Le Guen.

Burg Limbach

Die Burg Limbach ist eine abgegangene staufische Reichsburg auf der Stelle des heutigen Schlossplatzes in Limbach im Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis (Baden-Württemberg), die um 1200 errichtet und 1771 abgerissen wurde.

Der Burgstall in Limbach, heute Schlossplatz genannt, ist eine von Gräben umgebene, baumbestandene Fläche rechts gegenüber der Einmündung der Siedlungsstraße Baumgarten in die südwärts aus dem Dorf herausführende Muckentaler Straße.

Der Ort Limbach entstand im Zuge der fränkischen Kolonisierung am alten Fernweg von Wimpfen nach Amorbach. Zur Zeit der Staufer wurde unterhalb des alten Dorfes eine Burg errichtet und das Dorf vom ursprünglichen Siedlungsplatz oberhalb der Lautzenklinge an die Niederungsburg verlegt. Erstmals urkundlich genannt wurde Limbach mit einem Vogt Konrad von Limbach, der 1283 Besitz in Gundelsheim hatte. 1314 verpfändete König Ludwig der Bayer die Steuer der Reichsleute zu Limbach an den Schenk Eberhard von Erbach, der seit 1310 auch die Dörfer Mudau und Limbach als Würzburger Lehen hatte, seinen Besitz aber nach wenigen Jahren an den Mainzer Erzbischof veräußerte. 1340 wurde die Burg erstmals genannt, als Erzbischof Heinrich von Virneburg den Ritter Ludwig Mönch von Rosenberg als Burgmann in Limbach einsetzte. 1344 folgten die Brüder Heinrich und Hermann Pilgrim oder Bilgerin. Die Burg wurde dabei Heinrichsburg genannt, was auf einen Neu- oder Umbau durch Heinrich von Virneburg schließen lässt. Nach den Pilgrim, die sich von Limbach nannten, folgten 1411 die Brüder Dieter und Kuntz Rüdt von Bödigheim. Erzbischof Berthold von Henneberg verpfändete die Burg mit den Orten Limbach und Scheringen 1482 an Martin von Adelsheim. 1488 löste Wilhelm der Kurze von Bödigheim das Pfand aus.

Im Bauernkrieg 1525 wurde das Schloss gemäß einer Aussage im Prozess gegen Götz von Berlichingen ausgebrannt, doch scheinen die Schäden nicht sehr groß gewesen zu sein, da das Schloss im Folgejahr wieder bewohnt war.

Der Kreis der mit alten Sonderrechten ausgestatteten Königsleute traf sich jährlich am Stephanstag im Schloss und umfasste 1545 85 Personen aus 31 Dörfern. Mit dem erstarkenden Absolutismus gingen die Sonderrechte der Königsleute bis nach dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg verloren. Nach diesem Krieg war das Schloss Verwaltungssitz eines Mainzischen Landhauptmanns. Neben dem dreigeschossigen Hauptbau zählten zum Schloss Wirtschaftsgebäude wie ein Pferdestall und ein Waschhaus

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, außerhalb der Ummauerung noch eine Scheune und Schweineställe. Im Verlauf des 18. Jahrhunderts übertrug man wohl aus Kostengründen die Limbacher Verwaltung einem Bürgerlichen im Amt des Limbacher Oberschultheißen, wodurch die Burg als Dienstsitz überflüssig wurde und auf Anordnung des Mainzer Erzbischofs Emmerich Joseph 1771 abgerissen wurde.


Palais Amorbach | Schloss Alsbach | Alte Burg | Altes Schloss | Schloss Auerbach | Bacheburg | Schloss Bad König | Beerfurther Schlösschen | Schloss Birkenau | Palais Boisserée | Ringwall Bürgstadter Berg | Burg Breuberg | Jagdschlösschen Carlsruhe | Curti-Schloss | Schloss Dallau | Darmstädter Schloss (Groß-Umstadt) | Burg Dauchstein | Bergfeste Dilsberg | Burg Dorndiel | Emichsburg | Burg Eberbach | Schloss Erbach | Erdwerk Ohrenbacher Schanze | Schloss Ernsthofen | Jagdschloss Eulbach | Schloss Fechenbach | Burg Frankenberg (Amorbach)&nbsp

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;| Burg Frankenstein | Burg Freienstein | Burg Freudenberg | Schloss Fürstenau | Staatspark Fürstenlager | Burg Fürstenstein | Jagdschloss Gammelsbach | Ringwall Greinberg | Burgstall Güttersbach | Burg Guttenberg | Großherzogliches Palais (Heidelberg) | Hammerschlösschen | Hardheimer Schloss | Harfenburg | Haus zum Riesen | Heddersdorf’scher Adelshof | Heidelberger Schloss | Schloss Heiligenberg | Heppenheimer Stadtschloss | Hinterburg | Hirschburg | Burg Hirschhorn | Schloss Hochhausen | Burg Hornberg | Burg Hundheim | Burg Jossa | Burg Kirchbrombach | Jagdschloss Krähberg | Kronenburg | Kurmainzer Amtshof | Burg Landsehr | Schloss Lichtenberg | Burg Limbach | Burg Lindenfels | Burg Lohrbach | Schloss Löwenstein | Burg Lützelbach | Mauersechseck | Jagdschloss Max-Wilhelmshöhe | Burg Michelstadt | Mildenburg | Minneburg | Mittelburg | Burgstall Mörlenbach | Palais Morass | Mühlhäuser Schlößchen | Schloss Neuburg (Baden) | Burg Nieder-Modau | Obere Burg Heidelberg | Burg Obrigheim | Burg Ohrsberg | Veste Otzberg | Pfälzer Schloss | Schloss Reichenberg | Burg Reichenstein | Wasserburg Riedern | Burg Rodenstein | Rodensteiner Schloss | Burg Rohrbach | Schloss Rohrbach | Burg Schaafheim | Schanzenköpfle | Schauenburg | Burg Schlierbach | Schlösschen Ober-Beerbach | Wasserburg Schloß-Nauses | Turmhügel Schneirersbuckel | Burg Schnellerts | Schloss Schönberg | Schwalbennest | Wasserburg Schwarzach | Burg Schweinberg | Starkenburg | Burg Stolzeneck | Strahlenburg | Burg Stutz | Templerhaus Amorbach | Burg Tannenberg | Untere Burg Hardheim | Vorderburg | Wachenburg | Burgstall Waldau | Burg Waldeck | Schloss Waldleiningen | Burg Wald-Michelbach | Wambolt’sches Schloss | Weilerhügel | Weinheimer Schloss | Schloss Wiser | Burg Wildenberg | Burg Windeck | Schloss Wörth (Wörth am Main) | Burg Zwingenberg

Guillaume Borne

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Guillaume Borne, né le 12 février 1988 à Castres, est un joueur de football français évoluant au poste de défenseur.

Guillaume Borne commence le football à l’AS Lagarrigue, dans la banlieue de Castres

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, avant de rejoindre le Castres Football Club dans la catégorie benjamins. Lorsqu’il passe dans la catégorie 13 ans, il intègre le Centre de préformation de Castelmaurou. À 15 ans, il intègre le Centre de formation du Stade rennais. Il dispute son premier match professionnel le face au FC Lorient (0-0). Il joue alors la plupart du temps pour pallier les forfaits des membres plus expérimentés de l’effectif rennais, tels John Mensah ou Petter Hansson. Fin 2006, il intègre l’équipe de France des moins de 19 ans

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.

Le 20 août 2008, il est prêté au Stade brestois 29 qui évolue alors en Ligue 2. Il y marque son premier but en professionnel contre le SCO Angers, le 29 août 2008.

Le 24 juin 2009, il est transféré à l’US Boulogne, promue en Ligue 1. Après deux saisons à l’US Boulogne, il quitte le club le 30 juin 2011.

Il rebondit à l’AS Beauvais en National, et s’y engage le 11 juillet 2011 pour une saison, espérant jouer la montée en L2. Hélas le club est rétrogradé en CFA et le joueur est laissé libre par le club.

Le 3 octobre 2012, il signe en faveur du club de l’AS Vitré en CFA2 afin de relancer sa carrière. La saison est une réussite sur le plan collectif, les “Sang et Or” de Vitré remportant la poule H de CFA2 et accédant ainsi au CFA pour la saison 2013-2014. Malheureusement, sur la plan individuel, le défenseur enchaîne les blessures. Le joueur retrouve toutefois du rythme pour son retour en CFA en 2013/2014. La saison suivant est plus difficile, il est victime le 8 mai 2015 au cours d’un match d’un coup lui causant neuf fractures au visage. Il prend alors sa retraite à l’issue de la saison. En 2015, il devient gestionnaire de patrimoine et fondateur d’Extra Sport Conseil TeamESConseil.