Alan Rawsthorne

Alan Rawsthorne (2 May 1905 – 24 July 1971) was a British composer. He was born in Haslingden, Lancashire, and is buried in Thaxted churchyard in Essex.

Alan Rawsthorne was born in Deardengate House, Haslingden, Lancashire (Anon. 2015a), to Hubert Rawsthorne (1868–1943), a well-off medical doctor, and his wife, Janet Bridge (1877/8–1927) (McCabe 2004). Despite what appears to have been a happy and affectionate family life with his parents and elder sister, Barbara (the only sibling), in beautiful Lancashire countryside, as a boy Rawsthorne suffered from fragile health (McCabe 2004; Green 1971). Although he did at various times attend schools in Southport, much of Rawsthorne’s early education came through private tutoring at home (McCabe 2004). Despite a childhood aptitude for music and literature, Rawsthorne’s parents tried to steer him away from his dreams of becoming a professional musician. As a result, he unsuccessfully tried to take on degree courses at Liverpool University, first in dentistry and then architecture. Concerning dentistry, Rawsthorne is on record as having said “I gave that up, thank God, before getting near anyone’s mouth”, while his friend

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, Constant Lambert, quipped “Mr Rawsthorne assures me that he has given up the practice of dentistry, even as a hobby” (Anon. 2006).

In 1925, Rawsthorne was finally able to enrol at the Royal Manchester College of Music (Anon. 2015b), where his teachers included Frank Merrick for the piano and Carl Fuchs for the cello. In 1927, Rawsthorne’s mother died aged just forty-nine. After graduating from the Royal Manchester College of Music around 1930, Rawsthorne spent the next couple of years pursuing his piano training with Egon Petri at Zakopane in Poland, and then briefly also in Berlin (McCabe 2004).

On his return to England in 1932, Rawsthorne took up a post as pianist and teacher at Dartington Hall in Devon, where he became composer-in-residence for the School of Dance and Mime (Belcher 1999a). In 1934, Rawsthorne left for London to try his fortune as a freelance composer. His first real public success arrived four years later with a performance of his Theme and Variations for Two Violins at the 1938 International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM) Festival in London. The next year, his large scale Symphonic Studies for orchestral was performed in Warsaw, again at the ISCM Festival. The first in a line of completely assured orchestral scores, the Symphonic Studies, which can be heard as a concerto for orchestra in all but name, rapidly helped Rawsthorne establish himself as a composer possessing a highly distinctive musical voice (Evans 2001; Belcher 1999b).

Other acclaimed works by Rawsthorne include a viola sonata (1937), two piano concertos (1939, 1951), an oboe concerto (1947), two violin concertos (1948, 1956), a concerto for string orchestra (1949), and the Elegy for guitar (1971), a piece written for and completed by Julian Bream after the composer’s death. Other works include a cello concerto, three acknowledged string quartets among other chamber works, and three symphonies.

Rawsthorne wrote a number of film scores. His best–known work in this field was the music for the 1953 British war film The Cruel Sea (Swynnoe 2002, 161), and his other scores included many popular British films, such as The Captive Heart (1946), School for Secrets (1946), Uncle Silas (1947), Saraband for Dead Lovers (1948), Pandora and the Flying Dutchman (1951), Where No Vultures Fly (1951), West of Zanzibar (1954), The Man Who Never Was (1956) and Floods of Fear (1958).

Rawsthorne was married to Isabel Rawsthorne (née Isabel Nicholas), an artist and model well known in the Paris and Soho art scenes. Her contemporaries included André Derain, Alberto Giacometti sweater ball shaver, Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon. Isabel Rawsthorne was the widow of composer Constant Lambert and stepmother to Kit Lambert, manager of the rock group the Who, who died in 1981

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. Isabel died in 1992. Alan Rawsthorne was her third husband; Sefton Delmer (the journalist and member of the Special Operations Executive during the Second World War) was her first husband. Isabel was Alan Rawsthorne’s second wife, his first wife being Jessie Hinchliffe, a violinist in the Philharmonia Orchestra.

De Heeren van Scheurbuyck

De Heeren van Scheurbuyck is de titel van het 92ste stripverhaal van De Kiekeboes. De reeks wordt getekend door striptekenaar Merho

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. Het album verscheen in februari 2002. Met dit album werd een nieuwe cover geïntroduceerd.

Op een dag brengt de familie Kiekeboe een bezoek aan de ruïnes van het kasteel van de Heeren van Scheurbuyck. Hoewel Kiekeboe zeker weet dat hij het kasteel nooit eerder heeft bezocht, weet hij perfect hoe het er vroeger uitzag, kent hij blindelings de weg en weet hij veel over de geschiedenis, tot grote verbazing van Charlotte. Als ze de kantelen bezoeken shop football tees, heeft Kiekeboe plots last van hoogtevrees wholesale ankle socks, iets wat hem nog nooit parten gespeeld heeft. De nacht erna heeft hij een nachtmerrie over hoogtevrees.

Kiekeboe besluit een parapsycholoog te raadplegen, op aanraden van de gids en tevens nieuwe vriend van Fanny, Kevin. Die parapsycholoog, Lex Hickon, brengt hem terug naar een vorig leven wholesale soccer shop, waar hij in de 14de eeuw de hofnar was in het kasteel. Dit verhaal wordt uiteindelijk een dubbelverhaal, waarin heden en verleden samenvallen en waarbij veel personages in de huidige reeks een rol had in het verleden.

Burg Limbach

Die Burg Limbach ist eine abgegangene staufische Reichsburg auf der Stelle des heutigen Schlossplatzes in Limbach im Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis (Baden-Württemberg), die um 1200 errichtet und 1771 abgerissen wurde.

Der Burgstall in Limbach, heute Schlossplatz genannt, ist eine von Gräben umgebene, baumbestandene Fläche rechts gegenüber der Einmündung der Siedlungsstraße Baumgarten in die südwärts aus dem Dorf herausführende Muckentaler Straße.

Der Ort Limbach entstand im Zuge der fränkischen Kolonisierung am alten Fernweg von Wimpfen nach Amorbach. Zur Zeit der Staufer wurde unterhalb des alten Dorfes eine Burg errichtet und das Dorf vom ursprünglichen Siedlungsplatz oberhalb der Lautzenklinge an die Niederungsburg verlegt. Erstmals urkundlich genannt wurde Limbach mit einem Vogt Konrad von Limbach, der 1283 Besitz in Gundelsheim hatte. 1314 verpfändete König Ludwig der Bayer die Steuer der Reichsleute zu Limbach an den Schenk Eberhard von Erbach, der seit 1310 auch die Dörfer Mudau und Limbach als Würzburger Lehen hatte, seinen Besitz aber nach wenigen Jahren an den Mainzer Erzbischof veräußerte. 1340 wurde die Burg erstmals genannt, als Erzbischof Heinrich von Virneburg den Ritter Ludwig Mönch von Rosenberg als Burgmann in Limbach einsetzte. 1344 folgten die Brüder Heinrich und Hermann Pilgrim oder Bilgerin. Die Burg wurde dabei Heinrichsburg genannt, was auf einen Neu- oder Umbau durch Heinrich von Virneburg schließen lässt. Nach den Pilgrim, die sich von Limbach nannten, folgten 1411 die Brüder Dieter und Kuntz Rüdt von Bödigheim. Erzbischof Berthold von Henneberg verpfändete die Burg mit den Orten Limbach und Scheringen 1482 an Martin von Adelsheim. 1488 löste Wilhelm der Kurze von Bödigheim das Pfand aus.

Im Bauernkrieg 1525 wurde das Schloss gemäß einer Aussage im Prozess gegen Götz von Berlichingen ausgebrannt, doch scheinen die Schäden nicht sehr groß gewesen zu sein, da das Schloss im Folgejahr wieder bewohnt war.

Der Kreis der mit alten Sonderrechten ausgestatteten Königsleute traf sich jährlich am Stephanstag im Schloss und umfasste 1545 85 Personen aus 31 Dörfern. Mit dem erstarkenden Absolutismus gingen die Sonderrechte der Königsleute bis nach dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg verloren. Nach diesem Krieg war das Schloss Verwaltungssitz eines Mainzischen Landhauptmanns. Neben dem dreigeschossigen Hauptbau zählten zum Schloss Wirtschaftsgebäude wie ein Pferdestall und ein Waschhaus

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, außerhalb der Ummauerung noch eine Scheune und Schweineställe. Im Verlauf des 18. Jahrhunderts übertrug man wohl aus Kostengründen die Limbacher Verwaltung einem Bürgerlichen im Amt des Limbacher Oberschultheißen, wodurch die Burg als Dienstsitz überflüssig wurde und auf Anordnung des Mainzer Erzbischofs Emmerich Joseph 1771 abgerissen wurde.


Palais Amorbach | Schloss Alsbach | Alte Burg | Altes Schloss | Schloss Auerbach | Bacheburg | Schloss Bad König | Beerfurther Schlösschen | Schloss Birkenau | Palais Boisserée | Ringwall Bürgstadter Berg | Burg Breuberg | Jagdschlösschen Carlsruhe | Curti-Schloss | Schloss Dallau | Darmstädter Schloss (Groß-Umstadt) | Burg Dauchstein | Bergfeste Dilsberg | Burg Dorndiel | Emichsburg | Burg Eberbach | Schloss Erbach | Erdwerk Ohrenbacher Schanze | Schloss Ernsthofen | Jagdschloss Eulbach | Schloss Fechenbach | Burg Frankenberg (Amorbach)&nbsp

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;| Burg Frankenstein | Burg Freienstein | Burg Freudenberg | Schloss Fürstenau | Staatspark Fürstenlager | Burg Fürstenstein | Jagdschloss Gammelsbach | Ringwall Greinberg | Burgstall Güttersbach | Burg Guttenberg | Großherzogliches Palais (Heidelberg) | Hammerschlösschen | Hardheimer Schloss | Harfenburg | Haus zum Riesen | Heddersdorf’scher Adelshof | Heidelberger Schloss | Schloss Heiligenberg | Heppenheimer Stadtschloss | Hinterburg | Hirschburg | Burg Hirschhorn | Schloss Hochhausen | Burg Hornberg | Burg Hundheim | Burg Jossa | Burg Kirchbrombach | Jagdschloss Krähberg | Kronenburg | Kurmainzer Amtshof | Burg Landsehr | Schloss Lichtenberg | Burg Limbach | Burg Lindenfels | Burg Lohrbach | Schloss Löwenstein | Burg Lützelbach | Mauersechseck | Jagdschloss Max-Wilhelmshöhe | Burg Michelstadt | Mildenburg | Minneburg | Mittelburg | Burgstall Mörlenbach | Palais Morass | Mühlhäuser Schlößchen | Schloss Neuburg (Baden) | Burg Nieder-Modau | Obere Burg Heidelberg | Burg Obrigheim | Burg Ohrsberg | Veste Otzberg | Pfälzer Schloss | Schloss Reichenberg | Burg Reichenstein | Wasserburg Riedern | Burg Rodenstein | Rodensteiner Schloss | Burg Rohrbach | Schloss Rohrbach | Burg Schaafheim | Schanzenköpfle | Schauenburg | Burg Schlierbach | Schlösschen Ober-Beerbach | Wasserburg Schloß-Nauses | Turmhügel Schneirersbuckel | Burg Schnellerts | Schloss Schönberg | Schwalbennest | Wasserburg Schwarzach | Burg Schweinberg | Starkenburg | Burg Stolzeneck | Strahlenburg | Burg Stutz | Templerhaus Amorbach | Burg Tannenberg | Untere Burg Hardheim | Vorderburg | Wachenburg | Burgstall Waldau | Burg Waldeck | Schloss Waldleiningen | Burg Wald-Michelbach | Wambolt’sches Schloss | Weilerhügel | Weinheimer Schloss | Schloss Wiser | Burg Wildenberg | Burg Windeck | Schloss Wörth (Wörth am Main) | Burg Zwingenberg

James Hamilton, III conte di Arran

James Hamilton, III conte di Arran (1532(circa) – marzo 1609), nobile e militare scozzese che si oppose con fermezza alla reggenza di mano francese negli anni della Riforma scozzese. Figlio maggiore di James Hamilton, II conte di Arran, che fu anche reggente era imparentato con la famiglia reale tanto che a momenti alterni fu il terzo o il quarto in linea di successione e ricevette molte proposte di matrimonio da altrettanti reali. James Hamilton si recò in Francia con Maria Stuarda, ma al ritorno in patria si schierò contro Maria alleandosi al partito protestante. Nel 1562 iniziò a manifestare segni di squilibrio mentale e passò il resto della vita in ritiro.

James Hamilton nacque fra il 1532 e il 1536 da James Hamilton, II conte di Arran e Margaret Douglas. Suo padre era nipote di Mary Stuart, figlia maggiore di Giacomo II di Scozia tanto che al tempo suo padre era, dopo Giacomo V di Scozia, l’erede più vecchio e legittimo di Giacomo II. Suo padre fu dunque e per lungo tempo, l’Erede presuntivo del sovrano e James veniva subito dopo di lui. Anche sua madre era legata alla corona discendendo da essa due volte, una per via legittima attraverso Joan Stewart, contessa di Morton, figlia di Giacomo I di Scozia, la seconda attraverso una delle figlie illegittime di Giacomo IV di Scozia. Nel 1542 James Hamilton vide scalzata la propria posizione di erede presuntivo grazie alla nascita della piccola Maria Stuarda, figlia di Giacomo V, quando egli pochi giorni dopo morì Hamilton padre si trovò ad essere fra i reggenti per la bambina. Ovviamente da reggente Hamilton padre tentò di promuovere numerosi matrimoni reali per il figlio che era, dopo tutto, secondo in linea di successione. Nel marzo seguente Maria di Guisa, la madre di Maria disse all’ambasciatore inglese Ralph Sadler che Hamilton era intenzionato a far sposare James con sua figlia, cosa che ella era determinata ad impedire. In quello stesso anno si mormorò fra gli inviati francesi che Hamilton padre intendesse far sposare il figlio con la principessa Elisabetta Tudor, nessuno di questi due matrimoni ebbe mai luogo. Dal canto suo Enrico VIII d’Inghilterra voleva che Maria sposasse suo figlio ed erede Edoardo, Hamilton padre era un protestante e quindi inizialmente aderì a quest’idea, poi nel 1543 aderì al partito cattolico di David Beaton sposando la politica filo-francese. La risposta di Enrico fu il Brutale corteggiamento, nove anni di scontri fra Inghilterra e Scozia volti a far accettare agli scozzesi le sue aspettative matrimoniali. Nell’ottobre del 1544 il giovane James andò ospite del cardinale Beaton presso il Castello di St.Andrews dove non solo ospite, ma anche pegno dell’alleanza fra suo padre ed i cattolici. Nondimeno il reggente continuava a tentare di orchestrare un matrimonio fra James e Maria. Un anno dopo, nell’ottobre 1545, il fratellastro del reggente, John Hamilton, si incontrò con Hugh Somerville, V signore di Somerville e con Archibald Douglas, VI conte di Angus per avere il loro sostegno e fu il figlio del primo a scrivere a Maria di Guisa per informarla che i due non avrebbero ceduto. La notizia arrivò anche in Inghilterra grazie alle lettere di Alexander Crichton di Brunstane e del diplomatico francese Johannes Sturm che aveva ben compreso come questa unione avrebbe potuto ostacolare i trattati di pace anglo-francesi. Nel frattempo James continuò a vivere presso il cardinale e nel 1546 ricevette un eserciziario di latino e una copia delle favole di Esopo. In quello stesso anno una banda di ribelli attaccò il castello uccidendo il cardinale e James venne preso prigioniero, suo padre iniziò l’Assedio del castello di St.Andrews e i protestanti offrirono James ad Enrico VIII in cambio dell’aiuto della flotta inglese. Enrico era intenzionato ad accettare, tuttavia lo scambio non si concretizzò mai. Il 14 agosto 1547 il Parlamento di Scozia dichiarò James inadatto alla successione, allora era terzo, per tutta la durata della sua prigionia e a dispetto delle promesse di Enrico alla fine suo padre, con l’aiuto dei francesi prese il castello e lo liberò. A quel punto Hamilton padre acconsentì a che Maria sposasse il delfino, Franceso, erede di Enrico II di Francia.

Quando la regina Maria venne mandata in Francia nell’agosto 1548 James andò con lei ed anche se aveva solo sedici anni circa venne nominato capitano delle Garde écossaise, a seguito del buon fine dei negoziati matrimoniali suo padre era divenuto Duca di Châtellerault e James quindi gli succedette come Conte di Arran. James all’estero sembrò ottenere consensi, l’anno dopo in Francia venne pubblicata l’Emblemata, opera illustrata del giurista Andrea Alciato, e quell’edizione venne, appunto, dedicata a lui. Anche in Francia si continuò a fare progetti matrimoniali per James, Enrico II pensò di fargli sposare Françoise di Borbone, figlia di Luigi III di Montpensier, quando questo matrimonio non andò in porto se ne ventilarono diversi altri tutti entro la più alta nobiltà francese fra cui quello con una delle figlie avute dal sovrano con l’amante Diana di Poitiers, tuttavia James non si sposò mai con nessuna. Nel 1556 Hamilton padre lasciò la reggenza e sposò una politica filo-inglese tanto che si crede che James abbia sofferto di questo colpo di mano venendo imprigionato nei due anni successivi perché protestante handmade bracelets. Nel 1558 Hamilton padre propose a Elisabetta I d’Inghilterra di sposare James a suggello dell’alleanza anglo-scozzese, una proposta sostenuta da due grandi leader religiosi, John Knox, scozzese, e John Jewel, inglese. Jewel rimase favorevole all’idea per quasi due anni, quel che pensò Elisabetta di tale proposta non è noto. Nel 1559 padre e figlio si dichiararono apertamente protestanti

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, dopo la parentesi cattolica erano tornati alla religione originaria, e James tornò in patria insieme all’ambasciatore inglese Thomas Randolph e in Scozia entrambi incontrarono l’altro diplomatico, Ralph Sander. Entrambi gli uomini agirono con lui come se fossero in termini di amicizia, ma nella loro corrispondenza ufficiale notarono i segni di instabilità mentale e l’8 dicembre 1560 Elisabetta rifiutò formalmente il suo potenziale fidanzamento con James affidando la comunicazione agli ambasciatori scozzesi, William Maitland di Lethington (1525-9 giugno 1573) e a James Douglas, IV conte di Morton.

Per tornare a casa James non ebbe vita facile, si crede che quando Hamilton padre confermò pubblicamente la propria adesione al protestantesimo James si trovasse nelle nuove proprietà di famiglia a Châtellerault e dovette immediatamente darsi alla fuga per scappare alle autorità. James tornò a casa passando dalla Svizzera, dove si nascose nei boschi per parecchi giorni e se riuscì a fuggire con successo fu per via dell’interessamento di due politici inglesi, William Cecil, I barone Burghley e Nicholas Throckmorton. James andò a Ginevra e poi a Zurigo dove fu ospite di Pietro Martire Vermigli e quindi a Losanna, qui si incontrò con Randolph dove viaggiò in incognito fino in Inghilterra passando per le Fiandre. Una volta giunto a Londra s’incontrò con Elisabetta per poi essere ospite presso la casa dei Cecil. Verso la fine del luglio 1559 Throckmorton scrisse a Cecil di come sembrava che James fosse stato mal sopportato in Francia, dopo che era partito erano scoppiate delle risse fra i suoi uomini e alcuni soldati francesi e quando uno di essi provò a scusarsi con Maria in persona ella disse che James era un traditore. Elisabetta sicuramente poté anche provare simpatia per le traversie patite da James, ma il suo salvataggio e il suo rientro in Scozia erano per l’Inghilterra non un’impresa matrimoniale, ma un ulteriore passo per porre fine alla Auld Alliance ben sperando che con il suo ritorno Hamilton padre, quale secondo uomo del regno sarebbe infine divenuto il capo dei Lord della Congregazione. Il pezzo successivo del suo viaggio, che lo avrebbe infine riportato a casa, traspare dalla corrispondenza fra Jewel, Martire Vermigli ed Heinrich Bullinger.

Una volta tornato in Scozia James si recò a Berwick-upon-Tweed dove s’incontrò con il riformista scozzese Henry Balnaves per poi infine ritrovarsi con il padre presso l’Hamilton Palace. Nel settembre 1560 il capitano Corbeyran de Cardaillac Sarlabous, un francese in servizio presso il Castello di Dunbar, sparse la voce che il governo di Elisabetta stava prospettando un matrimonio fra James e l’ereditiera inglese Catherine Grey, ma ancora una volta non se ne fece nulla. In quello stesso anno Maria rimase vedova e Hamilton padre tornò a progettare un matrimonio fra lei e il figlio proprio com’era già stato fatto in passato. Maria tornò in patria l’anno seguente e il poeta scozzese George Buchanan suggerì che Maria avesse sfruttato l’affetto che James nutriva per lei spargendo la voce che egli avesse tentato di rapirla dall’Holyrood Palace per portarla presso una delle proprie residenze, a Kinneil House, in modo da poter giustificare l’incremento della propria guardia reale. Hamilton padre confutò tali voci, ma inutilmente e la sicurezza ad Holyrood rimase più alta di quanto non fosse prima. Già dal proprio rientro James combatté in maniera instancabile contro Maria di Guisa e contro i francesi unendosi ai Lord della Congregazione e sposando il partito riformista scozzese. Su ordine del padre attaccò il Castello di Crichton e il Falkland Palace, nell’ottobre e nel novembre 1559 con altri uomini fece diverse razzie fra cui una al palazzo del vescovo di Dunblane, dove prese una collana appartenente a Janet Stewart e rimosse il vescovo, insieme a tutti i preziosi, dal Castello di Stirling e tenuto prigioniero presso il Castle Campbell fino a Natale e costretto a pagare per la propria “permanenza”. Nei mesi seguenti vi fu tutta una serie di scontri che spinsero l’ambasciatore francese Gilles de Noailles a scrivere che i ribelli scozzesi avevano assicurato ad Elisabetta che se James avesse vinto egli avrebbe preso il trono riconoscendo l’Inghilterra quale regno superiore e pagando un tributo annuale all’Inghilterra che avrebbe annesso le armi scozzesi alle proprie. I molti scontri dei mesi a venire portarono infine al Trattato di Edimburgo, redatto poco dopo la morte di Maria di Guisa e alla proclamazione della religione riformata in Scozia, dopo tale promulgazione James andò insieme a James Stewart presso il Dalhousie Castle per bruciare libri sacri e paramenti.

La fatica dei mesi precedenti portò James a un crollo mentale. Nella Pasqua 1562 suo padre lo confinò nella propria camera a Kinneil House

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, anche se riuscì a scappare raggiungendo il Falkland Palace. James accusò uno dei propri nemici, James Hepburn, IV conte di Bothwell, di voler rapire la regina Maria per poi iniziare a parlare di streghe e demoni e della paura che coloro che gli erano intorno volessero ucciderlo. Subito dopo venne dichiarato pazzo e rimase confinato per il resto della vita. Buchanan che credeva alla versione di James circa il rapimento scrisse che venne portato al castello di St.Andrews e poi a quello di Edimburgo. James venne rilasciato nell’aprile 1566 senza che fosse in grado di formulare discorsi. Nel 1575 ereditò le proprietà paterne, ma vista la certificazione della sua follia finì insieme alle proprietà sotto le cure del fratello John Hamilton, I marchese di Hamilton che insieme al fratello Claud Hamilton, I lord di Paisley lo tenne confinato presso il Castello di Craignethan e anche se in quello stesso anno venne riportato che se egli fosse stato abituato ad una certa dose di libertà vi sarebbe stata possibilità di ripresa questa libertà non gli venne mai accordata. Altri membri della famiglia soffrirono di problemi mentali, la madre Margaret, le zie Elizabeth e Janet Douglas, moglie questa di Robert Maxwell, V Lord Maxwell, la sorella Anne Hamilton ed anche uno dei suoi fratelli, David. I sintomi che descrive sommariamente Randolph fanno pensare ad un Disturbo bipolare, ma ovviamente sono solo speculazioni. Con il passare del tempo James scompare dalle cronache, i fratelli, sostenitori di Maria, persero parte delle proprietà di famiglia e lo stesso James perse il contado dal 1581 al 1585. James morì nel marzo 1609.

Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe

Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918

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, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany

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, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.

Schaumburg-Lippe was formed as a county in 1647 through the division of the County of Schaumburg by treaties between the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and the Count of Lippe

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. The division occurred because Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg had died in 1640 leaving no male heir. Initially Schaumburg-Lippe’s position was somewhat precarious: it had to share a wide variety of institutions and facilities with the County of Schaumburg (which belonged to Hesse-Kassel), including the representative assembly and the highly productive Bückeberg mines, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel retained some feudal rights over it. It was further threatened by the headstrong policies of ruling Count Friedrich Christian. To counter these threats, Friedrich’s grandson Count Wilhelm (who reigned 1748–1777) retained a standing army of up to 1000 troops – quite a lot for such a small territory.

With Wilhelm’s death in 1777 the junior Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen inherited the County thereby reuniting Schaumburg-Lippe with Lippe-Alverdissen.

Schaumburg-Lippe was a county until 1807 when it became a principality; from 1871 it was a state within the German Empire. In 1913, it was the smallest state in the German Empire in terms of population. The capital was Bückeburg, and Stadthagen was the only other town. Under the constitution of 1868

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, there was a legislative diet of 15 members, 10 elected by the towns and rural districts and 1 each by the nobility, clergy and educated classes, the remaining 2 nominated by the prince. Schaumburg-Lippe sent one member to the Bundesrat (federal council) and one deputy to the Reichstag. It lasted until the end of the German monarchies in 1918, when it became a free state as the Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe. In November 1918, Prince Adolf was the second last reigning German monarch to abdicate.

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon

Moody Foundation

The Moody Foundation is a charitable foundation incorporated in Texas and based in the island city of Galveston. It was chartered in 1942 by William Lewis Moody, Jr

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. and his wife Libbie Shearn Rice Moody “to benefit, in perpetuity, present and future generations of Texans.” The foundation focuses the majority of its funding on programs involving education, social services, children’s needs, and community development.

The foundation makes grants through its Galveston, Texas headquarters and through a field office located in Dallas. In fiscal year 2006, it reported assets of $1.197 billion and approved $33 million in grants for projects that focused on education, social services, children’s needs, and community development. In terms of assets, it is one of the largest foundations in Texas, and among the top 100 largest charitable foundations in the United States.

The foundation’s main source of revenue consists of dividends from stock held in the American National Insurance Company, the majority of which is controlled by both the Moody Foundation and the Libbie Shearn Moody Trust. The trust department of the Moody National Bank administers the finances of both the Foundation and the Trust.

The foundation commits the majority of its grants and funding to the foundation-initiated projects of Moody Gardens and the Transitional Learning Center, both located in its home city of Galveston. However over the past decade, it has begun expanding the scope of its grants to include projects across Texas, as long as they fall within its field of charitable focus.

Moody Gardens is an educational & tourist complex located in the foundation’s home city of Galveston, Texas. It is owned, through a complex agreement, by the City of Galveston but funded, operated, and supported by the foundation. As of 2005, the foundation had expended almost $300 million USD towards the construction, expansion, and maintainace of the facility.

Moody Gardens features three main attractions: the Aquarium Pyramid, which is one of the largest in the world and holds many species of fish and other sealife; the Rainforest Pyramid, which contains tropical fauna and flora; and the Discovery Pyramid, which focuses on science-oriented exhibits and activities. Another major attraction is Palm Beach, a landscaped white-sand beach with freshwater lagoons and offering children’s activities. Moody Gardens also has a RideFilm Theater with motion-based pod seating, a 3-D IMAX theater

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, a paddlewheel cruise boat, a hotel and a convention center.

The Transitional Learning Center (TLC) is a facility that specializes solely in post-acute brain injury rehabilitation. It was started by the foundation in 1982, in response to a brain injury suffered by a son of trustee Robert L. Moody. The center provides survivors of acute brain injury with rehabilitation services needed to help patients overcome their injuries and regain independence.

In addition to providing medical treatment and support, TLC is involved with extensive brain research programs and offers educational training programs for the medical field.

In 2005 the foundation expended $38.1 million USD towards supporting and expanding the Transitional Learning Center and its programs.

In 2007 the Moody Foundation sign an agreement with the City of Galveston to completely rebuild the city’s municipal golf course. It is scheduled to reopen in June 2008 under the moniker . It is currently undergoing a $17 million comprehensive renovation, including the addition of new turf grass, green complexes, elevations

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, irrigation, drainage, cart paths, greens and a full clubhouse renovation.

The new course was designed by Jacobsen Hardy Golf Course Design and was constructed to keep historical features of the course while improving certain holes and course flow. The par 72 course measures 6,900 yards from the back tees, with 5 sets of tees to accommodate all playing abilities.

On November 7, 2013, a ceremony was held to celebrate the donation of $50 million from the Moody Foundation to the University of Texas at Austin College of Communication, changing its name to the Moody College of Communication and funding many new projects and college objectives. This is the largest donation in the college’s history.

The Moody Pedestrian Bridge is one of a kind Inverted Fink Truss bridge completed in 2016. The bridge connects two buildings as part of the Moody College of Communication in University of Texas at Austin. It crosses over West Dean Keeton Street, a busy street that traverses the campus. It was funded by the Moody Foundation.

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Aubrey McClendon

Aubrey Kerr McClendon (July 14, 1959 – March 2, 2016) was an American businessman and the founder and chief executive officer of American Energy Partners, LP. He was also the co-founder, chief executive officer and chairman of Chesapeake Energy. He was an outspoken advocate for natural gas as an alternative to oil and coal fuels. He was a pioneer in employing fracking, a controversial fuel extraction technique which has been widely criticized on environmental grounds.

McClendon was a part-owner of the National Basketball Association (NBA)’s Oklahoma City Thunder franchise, and was part of the ownership group that moved the Seattle SuperSonics to Oklahoma City in 2008.

On March 1, 2016, McClendon was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of conspiring “to rig bids for the purchase of oil and natural gas leases in northwest Oklahoma”. He died the following day, March 2, 2016, in a single-vehicle collision.

McClendon was born July 14, 1959, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to Joe and Carole McClendon. He was the great-nephew of Robert S. Kerr, a governor of Oklahoma and U.S. senator from the state.

He spent his childhood in Belle Isle, a neighborhood in Oklahoma City, and attended Belle Isle Elementary School, a public school. Later, he attended Heritage Hall Middle and Upper School, a private school. He was voted senior class president at Heritage Hall and graduated as co-valedictorian of his class. As a teenager, he started a lawn mowing business, through which he had an early encounter with Shannon Self, who later became a founding board member of Chesapeake Energy Corporation.

McClendon graduated from Duke University in 1981 with a B.A. in history. His favorite area of study was the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era. He minored in accounting and was a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He also met his wife, the former Kathleen Upton Byrns, while at Duke.

His first job after Duke was as an accountant. He was inspired to move from accounting to the energy business after reading a Wall Street Journal article about two men selling their Anadarko Basin well stake for $100 million. He worked as a landman at Jaytex Oil and Gas, a public company in Oklahoma City founded by his uncle, Aubrey M. Kerr, Jr. McClendon left Jaytex in November 1982 to pursue his own business in the oil and natural gas industry.

In 1983, McClendon and Tom L. Ward “threw in together” in their initial venture into oil and natural gas. Together, they co-founded Chesapeake Energy Corporation in 1989. McClendon and Ward were both 29 at the time. McClendon began as chairman and chief executive officer of Chesapeake, while Ward served as president and chief financial officer. The company began drilling its first two wells in Garvin County, Oklahoma, in May 1989.

With Chesapeake, McClendon focused on drilling wells into unconventional reservoirs such as fractured carbonates and shales and was an early adopter of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, which helped accelerate the company’s fast early growth. His focus on these new and unconventional techniques later led to him being called a “visionary leader” in the oil and natural gas industry.

He took the firm public in 1993, and in the following three years its stock was the most successful in the country, rising 274% in value from 1994–97, according to the Wall Street Journal.

In 2005, Forbes Magazine named McClendon one of the country’s top-performing executives for his role at Chesapeake. A few years later, he was the highest paid CEO of all the S&P 500 companies in 2008, receiving a compensation package totaling $112 million.

In 2008, McClendon was notified that his shares were no longer valuable enough to back a margin loan with Goldman Sachs and other banks. In response, McClendon was forced to sell a majority of his 31.5 million shares, comprising 94% of his stake in Chesapeake and 6% of the company. The following year, Chesapeake offered McClendon a five-year retention contract, including a $75 million bonus.

In 2011, Forbes called McClendon “America’s most reckless billionaire” in a cover story on his career. The profile noted his high risk tolerance and cited the sale of his shares in 2008 as a reckless move. The same year, the magazine named McClendon to its 20-20 Club, comprising the eight CEOs of public companies who had delivered annualized returns of more than 20% over a 20-year period. McClendon dismissed those who described him as a risk-loving wildcatter. “If I wanted to always do the most popular thing, then I’d be a follower,” he said in 2012. “The funny thing is that I don’t consider myself a gambler at all. A gambler is somebody who just closes their eyes and rolls the dice. We don’t do that”.

Chesapeake continued to grow its gas production under McClendon from 5 million to 2.5 billion cubic feet per day from 2009 to 2013. Chesapeake’s discovery of large reserves of natural gas was reported to have helped reduce natural gas prices to consumers in the U.S.

In a 2012 opinion piece discussing the development of the domestic oil and natural gas industry of the U.S. in the first decade of the 21st century, the former United States Secretary of Energy and Houston mayor Bill White described McClendon as “at the forefront of those heroes” of the American natural gas industry.

According to allegations reported in Reuters in April 2012, McClendon took out more than $1 billion in personal loans, to finance drilling costs, from firms that were lenders to Chesapeake. This raised the potential for conflicts of interest and prompted questions on the corporate governance and business ethics of Chesapeake’s senior management.

On February 20, 2013, Dow Jones reported that a Chesapeake board review found no improper conduct, no improper benefit to McClendon and no increased cost to the company.

On June 7, 2012, Reuters alleged that McClendon had used Chesapeake employees to perform $3 million of personal work, including engineering and accounting support and the repair of his house, in 2010. He had also used corporate planes for non-business-related travel for the McClendons’ family and friends. According to Chesapeake’s proxy statement filed with the SEC on May 11, 2012, McClendon reimbursed the company for all but $250,000 of the employee costs. His employment agreement authorized the personal use of company aircraft by McClendon, his immediate family members and guests, “for safety, security and efficiency” reasons.

In June 2012, Chesapeake shareholders voted to reject two board members and approve increased proxy access. McClendon relinquished his chairman title in June 2012, remaining in his role as CEO. McClendon stepped down from his position as CEO at Chesapeake on April 1, 2013. At the time, the company was estimated to be the second largest producer of natural gas in the United States, following only ExxonMobil.

Since 1992, through an initiative called the Founder Well Participation Program (FWPP), McClendon was allowed to invest in wells drilled by Chesapeake. The FWPP was first formalized and incorporated into the founders’ employment agreements in connection with Chesapeake’s IPO in February 1993.

Following his departure from the company, McClendon retained the option to continue investing in Chesapeake wells through July 2014.

In February 2015, Chesapeake filed a lawsuit against McClendon, accusing him of misappropriating company data on available land during his departure. McClendon and American Energy Partners responded that he had the right to all information in his possession under his various separation agreements with Chesapeake. In April 2015, American Energy – Utica, LLC reached a settlement with Chesapeake, giving them 6,000 acres (2,400 ha) of land and $25 million. As of April 2015, McClendon had been in arbitration with Chesapeake regarding the lawsuit against him.

On April 2, 2013, McClendon founded American Energy Partners, LP (AELP), a private oil and natural gas company based in Oklahoma City.

During 2013 and 2014, McClendon hired more than 600 employees and raised equity and debt commitments of approximately $15 billion. AELP is an oil and natural gas company comprising several affiliated companies, including American Energy Utica LLC and American Energy Marcellus LLC, American Energy – Permian Basin, LLC, American Energy – Woodford, LLC, American Energy – NonOp, LLC, American Energy – Minerals, LLC and American Energy – Midstream, LLC.

McClendon was a founding member of America’s Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA), a trade association and lobbying group for independent natural gas producers, based in Washington, D.C. He was an advocate for the greater use of natural gas in the United States and he funded a campaign in 2007 to draw clean-energy activists’ attention to a Texas utility’s plan to build 11 new coal plants. He also made a donation to the Sierra Club to fund its “Beyond Coal” campaign, which had blocked more than 150 new coal plants in the United States, as of October 2013.

McClendon was a public proponent of natural gas, fracking and shale drilling throughout his career. In an appearance on 60 Minutes in 2010, McClendon argued a case for natural gas as a clean fuel and a significant job-creating industry. He defended the natural gas and oil industry’s use of hydraulic fracturing techniques for well completion. Later that year, he was quoted saying, “We have found something that can liberate us from the influence of OPEC, that can put several million Americans back to work, liberate us from four-dollar gasoline.”

On March 1, 2016

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, a federal grand jury indicted McClendon for violating antitrust laws, with conspiring to suppress prices paid for oil and natural gas leases by allegedly rigging the bidding process. The indictment says he orchestrated a conspiracy in which two oil and gas companies colluded not to bid against each other for the purchase of leases in northwestern Oklahoma. The conspiracy he is suspected of was orchestrating a scheme between two large energy companies, which are not named in the indictment, that was conducted from December 2007 through March 2012. According to the indictment, the companies would decide ahead of time who would win bids, with the winner then allocating an interest in the leases to the other company, eliminating open competitive bidding with landowners. One of the unnamed companies in the indictment turned out to be SandRidge Energy, Inc. according to Bloomberg News. The United States Justice Department said this was the first case resulting from a continuing federal antitrust investigation into price fixing, bid rigging and other anticompetitive conduct in the oil and natural gas industry. In 2015, Chesapeake Energy settled charges of antitrust, fraud, and racketeering violations out of court, by agreeing to pay $25 million as compensation to landowners with leases.

After his indictment McClendon released a statement denying all charges, arguing that for 35 years he has worked to create jobs and help Oklahoma’s economy while providing plentiful energy for the entire country. “The charge that has been filed against me today is wrong and unprecedented

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, I have been singled out as the only person in the oil and gas industry in over 110 years since the Sherman Act became law to have been accused of this crime in relation to joint bidding on leasehold.” William J. Baer, assistant attorney general for the Justice Department’s antitrust division, said “His actions put company profits ahead of the interests of leaseholders entitled to competitive bids for oil and gas rights on their land

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. Executives who abuse their positions as leaders of major corporations to organize criminal activity must be held accountable for their actions.”

McClendon died the next day, on March 2, 2016, in a single-occupant single-vehicle crash when he drove his vehicle straight into a concrete bridge embankment. Later that day the Oklahoma City Police department related that it was too early to say if the collision was intentional. On March 3, the Justice Department filed motions to dismiss the indictment.

McClendon held a stake in various food service companies and restaurants, including Jamba Juice. He also held stakes in several Oklahoma City restaurants, including Irma’s Burger Shack, Deep Fork Grill, The Coach House, Republic Gastro Pub, Metro Wine Bistro & Bar, Provision Kitchen and Pops. McClendon opened Pops, a burgers and soda restaurant on the historic Route 66 highway in Arcadia, Oklahoma, in 2007.

From 2004 to 2008, McClendon ran a $200 million hedge fund, Heritage Management Company LLC, with Tom Ward. He invested $35 million in ProCure Treatment Centers Inc., a company with three proton-therapy based cancer treatment centers, in 2008.

From 2004 to 2006, McClendon bought almost 400 acres (160 ha) of mostly undeveloped dunes on the east coast of Lake Michigan and the Kalamazoo River for $39.5 million. He had previously secured a half-interest on the land in 2004. In 2006, the five-member Township Board representing Saugatuck, Michigan voted unanimously to rezone the land, making development more difficult. The Township Board supported the views of local citizens and the Saugatuck Dunes Coastal Alliance, who argued that McClendon’s plans for development would irrevocably damage the property. He continued with the land purchase, and in 2007 his legal team began discussions of scaling back the legal restrictions on the land with township officials.

In 2009, McClendon sold 171 acres (69 ha) of the land to the Western Michigan Land Conservancy. In December 2010, McClendon filed a federal lawsuit attempting to overturn the zoning laws and a settlement was reached in 2012 which voided Saugatuck’s 2006 rezoning.

From 2008 to 2013, McClendon was one of the U.S.’s largest landowners, owning more than 100

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,000 acres (40,000 ha).

McClendon was an original member of the Professional Basketball Club LLC, which owns the National Basketball Association (NBA)’s Oklahoma City Thunder franchise. He was a part of the team that moved the Seattle SuperSonics to Oklahoma City in 2008, where they were renamed the Oklahoma City Thunder. At the time the team moved, McClendon owned 20 percent of the franchise.

Prior to the move, in 2007, McClendon was quoted in The Journal Record (an Oklahoma City newspaper) as saying “we (the ownership group) didn’t buy the Seattle SuperSonics to keep them in Seattle”. The NBA fined McClendon $250,000 in response, as his statement contradicted the organization’s publicized intentions at the time. In April 2014, he purchased more shares in the Oklahoma City Thunder franchise from G. Jeffrey Records Jr. .

McClendon made sizable donations to and served on the board of directors for many municipal and private organizations in Oklahoma City, including the Boathouse District and Boathouse Foundation, The McClendon Family Boys and Girls Club of OKC, the Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce, Oklahoma State Fair and Oklahoma City Public Schools. He donated to Oklahoma City arts organizations, including the Lyric Theatre, Ballet Oklahoma, Oklahoma Museum of Art, Arts Council of Oklahoma City, the Oklahoma Heritage Foundation and the Oklahoma City Philharmonic.

From 2011 on, McClendon hosted an annual event for local Boy Scouts at his Arcadia Farm property. He donated approximately $15 million to Duke University and $12.5 million to the University of Oklahoma.

McClendon was inducted into the Oklahoma Heritage Foundation’s Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 2007, and in 2009, he was a top finalist for CEO of the Year at the Platts Global Energy Awards.

In 2010, U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., a subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, gave McClendon the Chief Roughneck Award, which honors the lifetime achievements of petroleum industry leaders.

In 2011, he was awarded the Ernst & Young National Entrepreneur Of The Year in Energy, Cleantech and Natural Resources. In 2013, the Heritage Hall Alumni Association named McClendon, who graduated in 1977, the recipient of its Distinguished Alumni Award.

McClendon lived in Oklahoma City with his wife, the former Kathleen Upton Byrns. They have three adult children named Jack, Callie, and Will. By his wife, he was related to Sports Illustrated supermodel Kate Upton.

McClendon’s personal wine collection was estimated at one time to include more than 100,000 bottles. He also held an extensive collection of antique maps of Oklahoma and had collected a number of vintage motor boats.

McClendon died in a single-occupant, single-vehicle crash on March 2, 2016, the day after his indictment by a federal grand jury accusing him of violating antitrust laws from 2007 to 2012 while the CEO of Chesapeake Energy. Oklahoma City Police spokesman Paco Balderrama said “He pretty much drove straight into the wall. The information out there at the scene is that he went left of center, went through a grassy area right before colliding into the embankment. There was plenty of opportunity for him to correct and get back on the roadway and that didn’t occur.” According to police reports, he died instantly when his 2013 Chevrolet Tahoe SUV traveled over the speed limit and crashed into a concrete viaduct under a bridge on Midwest Boulevard in Oklahoma City, shortly after 9 a.m. Later that day, local police indicated that it was too early to determine if the collision was intentional or if McClendon may have suffered a medical event. He was not wearing a seat belt at the time of the crash. Two weeks later, Oklahoma City investigators announced that the collision occurred at 78 miles per hour (126 km/h) with no evidence of a health emergency, although several additional weeks would be required for toxicology tests and an official cause of death. Two months later, with the medical examiner’s final report still pending, Balderrama announced that the police investigation found no evidence of suicide but neither could it be ruled out: “Had he slept at all? It’s very possible he suffered a medical event… We may never know one-hundred percent what happened.”

A spokesman for the U.S. Attorney in Oklahoma City disputed initial reports that McClendon was en route to the courthouse when the crash occurred. The spokesman said that no arraignments or meetings were scheduled with McClendon for that day.