Alan Rawsthorne

Alan Rawsthorne (2 May 1905 – 24 July 1971) was a British composer. He was born in Haslingden, Lancashire, and is buried in Thaxted churchyard in Essex.

Alan Rawsthorne was born in Deardengate House, Haslingden, Lancashire (Anon. 2015a), to Hubert Rawsthorne (1868–1943), a well-off medical doctor, and his wife, Janet Bridge (1877/8–1927) (McCabe 2004). Despite what appears to have been a happy and affectionate family life with his parents and elder sister, Barbara (the only sibling), in beautiful Lancashire countryside, as a boy Rawsthorne suffered from fragile health (McCabe 2004; Green 1971). Although he did at various times attend schools in Southport, much of Rawsthorne’s early education came through private tutoring at home (McCabe 2004). Despite a childhood aptitude for music and literature, Rawsthorne’s parents tried to steer him away from his dreams of becoming a professional musician. As a result, he unsuccessfully tried to take on degree courses at Liverpool University, first in dentistry and then architecture. Concerning dentistry, Rawsthorne is on record as having said “I gave that up, thank God, before getting near anyone’s mouth”, while his friend

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, Constant Lambert, quipped “Mr Rawsthorne assures me that he has given up the practice of dentistry, even as a hobby” (Anon. 2006).

In 1925, Rawsthorne was finally able to enrol at the Royal Manchester College of Music (Anon. 2015b), where his teachers included Frank Merrick for the piano and Carl Fuchs for the cello. In 1927, Rawsthorne’s mother died aged just forty-nine. After graduating from the Royal Manchester College of Music around 1930, Rawsthorne spent the next couple of years pursuing his piano training with Egon Petri at Zakopane in Poland, and then briefly also in Berlin (McCabe 2004).

On his return to England in 1932, Rawsthorne took up a post as pianist and teacher at Dartington Hall in Devon, where he became composer-in-residence for the School of Dance and Mime (Belcher 1999a). In 1934, Rawsthorne left for London to try his fortune as a freelance composer. His first real public success arrived four years later with a performance of his Theme and Variations for Two Violins at the 1938 International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM) Festival in London. The next year, his large scale Symphonic Studies for orchestral was performed in Warsaw, again at the ISCM Festival. The first in a line of completely assured orchestral scores, the Symphonic Studies, which can be heard as a concerto for orchestra in all but name, rapidly helped Rawsthorne establish himself as a composer possessing a highly distinctive musical voice (Evans 2001; Belcher 1999b).

Other acclaimed works by Rawsthorne include a viola sonata (1937), two piano concertos (1939, 1951), an oboe concerto (1947), two violin concertos (1948, 1956), a concerto for string orchestra (1949), and the Elegy for guitar (1971), a piece written for and completed by Julian Bream after the composer’s death. Other works include a cello concerto, three acknowledged string quartets among other chamber works, and three symphonies.

Rawsthorne wrote a number of film scores. His best–known work in this field was the music for the 1953 British war film The Cruel Sea (Swynnoe 2002, 161), and his other scores included many popular British films, such as The Captive Heart (1946), School for Secrets (1946), Uncle Silas (1947), Saraband for Dead Lovers (1948), Pandora and the Flying Dutchman (1951), Where No Vultures Fly (1951), West of Zanzibar (1954), The Man Who Never Was (1956) and Floods of Fear (1958).

Rawsthorne was married to Isabel Rawsthorne (née Isabel Nicholas), an artist and model well known in the Paris and Soho art scenes. Her contemporaries included André Derain, Alberto Giacometti sweater ball shaver, Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon. Isabel Rawsthorne was the widow of composer Constant Lambert and stepmother to Kit Lambert, manager of the rock group the Who, who died in 1981

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. Isabel died in 1992. Alan Rawsthorne was her third husband; Sefton Delmer (the journalist and member of the Special Operations Executive during the Second World War) was her first husband. Isabel was Alan Rawsthorne’s second wife, his first wife being Jessie Hinchliffe, a violinist in the Philharmonia Orchestra.

Mara (Region)

Mara ist eine der 26 Regionen von Tansania. Ihr Name ist vom gleichnamigen Fluss Mara abgeleitet, der von Kenia kommend die Region von Ost nach West durchfließt und in den Viktoriasee mündet. Die Hauptstadt ist Musoma.

Die Region umfasst 30.150 km² (davon 7.500 km² Wasserfläche) und befindet sich im Norden des Landes. Sie grenzt im Westen an den Viktoriasee und im Norden an die kenianische Grenze. Im Osten befindet sich die Arusha-Region und im Süden die Regionen Mwanza und die Shinyanga. Die Region unterteilt sich in folgende Bezirke: Bunda im Süd-Westen, Serengeti im Südosten, Tarime und Rorya im Norden, sowie die Hauptstadt Musoma (Stadt) und Musoma (Land).

Laut Volkszählung lebten im Jahr 2002 in dem Gebiet 1

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.368.602 Menschen, das damit zu den dünnbesiedeltsten Gebieten des Landes gehört. Die Bewohner gehören verschiedenen Stämmen an, darunter vor allem Luo, Jita, Zanaki, Kurya, Kabwa, Kiroba, Simbiti, Ngoreme, Kwaya, Ikoma, Nata, Isenye, Ikizu, Sizaki, Sukuma und Taturu. Die Menschen sind zumeist (ca. 95 %) christlichen oder traditionellen Glaubens mit einem geringen muslimischen Anteil, vor allem in den Städten.

Die Region fällt von Osten nach Westen hin ab und ist in 3 Zonen gegliedert. Im Osten befindet sich das Tarime-Hochland mit einer durchschnittlichen Höhe von 1500 bis 1800 m über NN. Zwei Regenzeiten (Mitte Februar bis Juni und Mitte September bis Anfang Januar) ergeben jährliche Niederschläge von etwa 1500 mm. Die Temperaturen sind eher kühler. Dies in Verbindung mit guten Böden ist dies Grundlage für eine expandierende Landwirtschaft, die neben dem Anbau von Früchten und Pflanzen für den Eigenbedarf auch Sonderkulturen wie Kaffee und Bananen anbaut. Die Ausweitung der Viehhaltung kollidiert etwas mit der Intensivierung der sonstigen Landwirtschaft. Der Bereich wird überwiegend von Kurya bewohnt.

Im Westen liegt auf ca. 1100–1200 m Meereshöhe die sogenannte Seezone, die sich entlang des Viktoriasees etwa 10 bis 15 km weit in das Landesinnere erstreckt. Hier stellen die Jita die Bevölkerungsmehrheit. Haupterwerbsquelle war neben der Landwirtschaft, die hier mehr als Gartenbau betrieben und kleinteilig angelegt ist, der Fischfang im See. Diese Erwerbsquelle hat jedoch auf Grund der Überfischung und der Belastung des Sees durch Einleitungen stark gelitten. Die Niederschläge liegen bei 900 mm im Jahr und die Temperaturen können als warm Bezeichnet werden.

In dem zwischen Seebereich und Hochebene ansteigenden Hügelland sind die Luo die wichtigste ethnische Gruppe. Die großen Viehbestände sind hier eine der Haupterwerbsquellen.

Am Viktoriasee, der noch immer ein wichtiges Mittel zur Personenbeförderung darstellt, befinden sich die Städte Shirati, Kinesi, Musoma, Ikungu, Suguti, Bukima und Kibara. Die Städte im Landesinneren sind Utegi, Nyamongo, Simba, Ushashi, Ikoma und Banagi. Die Region ist über den Flughafen der Hauptstadt Musoma zu erreichen. Von dort führen Straßen nach Kenia und zum Serengeti-Nationalpark. Ebenso verfügen die meisten anderen Städte über kleine Flugfelder, die von der Hauptstadt aus mit regelmäßigen Fluglinien angebunden sind.

Ca. 7.000 km² des Serengeti-Nationalparks, der auch Teile der Nachbarregion Arusha umfasst, dehnen sich über beinahe ein Drittel der Region Mara aus

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Arusha | Daressalam | Dodoma | Geita | Iringa | Kagera | Katavi | Kigoma | Kilimandscharo | Lindi | Manyara | Mara | Mbeya | Morogoro | Mtwara | Mwanza | Njombe | Pemba Kaskazini | Pemba Kusini | Pwani | Rukwa | Ruvuma | Shinyanga | Simiyu | Singida | Tabora | Tanga | Unguja Kusini | Unguja Kaskazini | Unguja Mjini Magharibi

Andreas Maurer

Andreas Maurer (Gelsenkirchen, 8 marzo 1958) è un ex tennista tedesco

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Diventa professionista nel 1978. Nel 1980 raggiunge per la prima volta i quarti di finale in un torneo al Brussels Outdoor dove viene sconfitto da Gustavo Guerrero per 6-4, 6-7, 6-8.

Nel 1981 raggiunge la semifinale al Mercedes Cup di Stoccarda dove viene sconfitto da Björn Borg, numero uno del mondo e vincitore del torneo, per 6-2, 6-1.

Nel 1982 raggiunge la sua prima finale al Cologne Challenger perdendo dal francese Dominique Bedel per 6-2, 3-6, 4-6. Raggiunge anche per la prima volta gli ottavi di finale in un torneo dello Slam, venendo sconfitto dal finalista di quella edizione Guillermo Vilas per 2-6, 3-6, 1-6. Raggiunge anche la sua prima finale in doppio in coppia con Wolfgang Popp alla Mercedes Cup, i due vengono sconfitti dalle teste di serie numero due del torneo Mark Edmondson e Brian Teacher per 3-6, 1-6.

Nel 1983 raggiunge le semifinali al Dutch Open di Hilversum sconfitto da Tomáš Šmíd, testa di serie numero 3 e vincitore del torneo, per 6-3, 3-6, 5-7

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Nel 1984 raggiunge i quarti di finale al Hypo Group Tennis International di Bari sconfitto da Emilio Sánchez per 3-6, 1-6 e la semifinale in doppio al BMW Open di Monaco di Baviera in coppia con Popp dove vengono sconfitti da Eric Fromm e Florin Segărceanu per 3-6, 2-6. Conquista inoltre il suo primo titolo in doppio in coppia con Sandy Mayer battendo in finale della Mercedes Cup gli statunitensi Fritz Buehning e Ferdi Taygan per 7-6, 6-4.

Nel 1985 ha la sua migliore annata infatti conquista il suo primo titolo al Madrid Tennis Grand Prix sconfiggendo in finale lo statunitense Lawson Duncan 7-5, 6-2, raggiunge la finale allo Swiss Open Gstaad sconfitto da Joakim Nyström per 4-6 Green Runner Waist Pack, 6-1, 5-7

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, 3-6, le semifiniali al Dutch Open di Hilversum sconfitto da Ricki Osterthun per 6-3, 6-7, 4-6, al Fischer Grand Prix di Vienna sconfitto da Libor Pimek 3-6, 2-6 e i quarti di finale alla Mercedes Cup di Stoccarda sconfitto da Brad Gilbert 0-6, 3-6. Raggiunge anche il suo migliore risultato a Wimbledon arrivando agli ottavi di finale dove viene sconfitto dal numero uno del mondo John McEnroe per 0-6, 4-6, 2-6.

Nel 1986 anno in cui raggiunge il suo best Ranking diventando numero 24 del mondo non riesce a ripetersi al Madrid Tennis Grand Prix dove si arrende in semifinale contro Joakim Nyström con un doppio 4-6. Peggiora il suo risultato anche a Hilversum dove si ferma ai quarti contro Menno Oosting sconfitto per 6-3, 4-6, 6-7. Raggiunge tuttavia la sua terza e ultima finale in carriera al Torneo Godó di Barcellona sconfitto dallo svedese Kent Carlsson per 2-6, 2-6, 0-6. Vince anche il suo secondo e ultimo titolo di doppio al Geneva Open di Ginevra in coppia con Jörgen Windahl battendo 6–4, 3–6, 6–4 gli argentini Gustavo Luza e Gustavo Tiberti in finale.

Nel 1987 ottiene dei buoni risultati solamente in doppio raggiungendo i quarti di finale all’ATP Nizza in coppia con Windahl dove i due vengono sconfitti da Jim Pugh e Eliot Teltscher 2-6, 4-6 e all’ATP German Open di Amburgo in coppia con Mel Purcell dove i due vengono sconfitti da Miloslav Mečíř e Tomáš Šmíd per 5-7, 3-6.

Nel 1988 raggiunge due finali Challenger in doppio.

Partecipa anche alla Coppa Davis con la Germania Ovest con un bilancio di sei vittorie e sette sconfitte tra singolare e doppio.