John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford

John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, Lord Great Chamberlain KG PC (c.1482 – 21 March 1540) was an English peer and courtier.

John de Vere, born about 1482, was the son of John de Vere and Alice Kilrington (alias Colbroke), and the great-grandson of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, succeeding his second cousin, John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford, in the earldom. De Vere had two stepbrothers, William Courtenay and Walter Courtenay, and a stepsister, Katherine Courtenay meat tenderizer seasoning, by his mother’s second marriage, before 1491, to Sir Walter Courtenay (d. 7 November 1506), a younger son of Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham, Devon, by Elizabeth Hungerford.

De Vere was an Esquire of the Body at the funeral of Henry VII in 1509, and was knighted by Henry VIII 25 September 1513 at Tournai, following the Battle of the Spurs. He attended Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and at his meeting with the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, at Dover in 1522.

On 19 December 1526 Oxford was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain for life and was made a Knight of the Garter on 21 October 1527. He signed the Lords’ petition against Cardinal Wolsey on 1 December 1529, and was appointed to the Privy Council before 22 March 1531.

In 1531 it was reported from Venice that Oxford was ‘a man of valour and authority … and it is his custom always to cavalcade with two hundred horse’.

Oxford bore the crown at Queen Anne Boleyn’s coronation in April 1533

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, but later served on the commission which tried the Queen on 15 May 1536. On 15 October 1537 he attended the christening of the future King Edward VI, and on 12 November following was present at the funeral of Queen Jane Seymour.

On 2 and 3 December 1538 Oxford served on the panel of peers at the treason trials of the Marquess of Exeter, and Lord Montagu.

Oxford and his son, John, were in the King’s retinue at the reception of Anne of Cleves at Blackheath.

Oxford was reputedly the first Protestant earl of Oxford. He patronised a company of players for which he commissioned John Bale to write plays from 1534-1536. As Lord Great Chamberlain and a favourite of Henry VIII, about 1537 he directed Bale to write anti-Catholic propaganda plays for Richard Morison’s campaign against the Pope.

Oxford died 21 March 1540 at his manor of Colne, Essex and was buried on 12 April at Castle Hedingham.

Oxford married firstly, Christian Foderingey (b. circa 1481, d. before 4 November 1498), the daughter of Thomas Foderingey (circa 1446–1491) of Brockley, Suffolk, by Elizabeth Doreward (c.1473–1491), daughter of William Doreward of Bocking, Essex. There were no issue of the marriage.

Oxford married secondly, Elizabeth Trussell, the daughter of Edward Trussell (c.1478 – 16 June 1499) of Kibblestone, Staffordshire and Margaret Don, the daughter of Sir John Don (d.1503) by Elizabeth Hastings (d.1508). They had four sons and three daughters:

English cricket team in Australia in 1954–55

Len Hutton captained the English cricket team in Australia in 1954–55, playing as England against Australia in the 1954-55 Ashes series and as the MCC in other matches on the tour. It was the first time that an England team had toured Australia under a professional captain since the 1880s. After losing the First Test by an innings, they beat Australia 3-1 and retained the Ashes. The combination of Frank Tyson, Brian Statham, Trevor Bailey, Johnny Wardle and Bob Appleyard made it one of the strongest bowling sides to tour Australia, and it was the only team of any nationality to defeat Australia at home between 1932-33 and 1970-71.

The tour was managed by Geoffrey Howard, the popular secretary of Lancashire County Cricket Club who had been a wicketkeeper-batsman for the Private Banks XI in 1926-36 and had played three games for Middlesex. He was in the RAF during the Second World War and once hit a century before lunch playing for their cricket team. Howard had managed the MCC tour of India and Sri Lanka in 1951-52, and on a later tour would smooth things over when some players tipped water over umpire Idris Begh in Pakistan in 1955-56. “The ‘Ger” ran a happy ship and even played in a couple of non-first class matches. He had been given no funds by the MCC (he was meant to return a profit) and had to take out an overdraft from an Australian bank until he could pay his way with gate receipts. When Len Hutton was stricken with fibrositis at the start of the Third Test, it was Howard and Duckworth who convinced him to play. George Duckworth had been England’s wicketkeeper in the 1920s, but now managed the team’s baggage and travel arrangements. He “was guide, philosopher and friend to all who had the sense to see the worth of his experience of cricket in Australia” and liaised with the press corps. One innovation was the appointment of Harold Dalton as the team physiotherapist. Previously the players had used local masseurs.

The selection of the MCC touring team was not without controversy. Len Hutton was the first professional England captain since Arthur Shrewsbury in 1876-77 other than as a temporary stop-gap. This break with tradition received much criticism from those who thought only a gentleman should hold this honour, but England had been heavily defeated by Australia in every series since the war, and even the West Indies in 1950. Hutton had been brought up in the hard school of Yorkshire cricket under George Hirst and Herbert Sutcliffe. Even so, he “…was a tactical genius, whose assistance was often sought…” by amateur captains, but in his day professionals were not trained as captains and the burden sat heavily on his shoulders.

He began well with a 3-0 victory over India in 1952 and regained the Ashes 1-0 in 1953. England pulled back from being 2-0 down to square a series in the West Indies in 1953-54 despite political interference, riots and dubious umpiring. England drew 1-1 with Pakistan in 1954, but Hutton was ill for two Tests and the Rev David Sheppard captained England

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. There was talk that the Sussex amateur should lead the MCC in Australia and New Zealand. Fortunately, wiser counsels prevailed and Hutton was confirmed as captain. Of the amateurs on tour Bill Edrich was an old comrade and had been a professional before the war, and the others – Reg Simpson, Trevor Bailey, Peter May and Colin Cowdrey – had been schoolboys when Hutton was making Test centuries. As a result, Hutton’s right to the captaincy was not questioned, the team were happy to play under him and his conscientious vice-captain Peter May was particularly helpful. As a working class Yorkshireman he was not fully adept in social graces, and he gave his after-dinner speeches in “Pudsey English”. When dealing with the press corps, Hutton used heavy silences and “developed the art when it suited him of delivering with much gravity Delphic utterances which his hearers could interpret however they pleased”

Hutton captained England in 23 Tests – of which he won 11, drew 8 and lost 4 – and proved to be one of the most successful captains in England’s history. They never lost a series in which he was captain and England regained the Ashes from Lindsay Hassett’s powerful 1953 Australians—the first such success in 19 years. He was fortunate in the quality of the young England players available in the 1950s, but he used them to the utmost effect. More than any other player he knew the strain of facing high-quality fast bowling and used his own fast bowlers ruthlessly. Hutton would often slow the over rates both to rest them in the Australian heat and to break the concentration of the batsmen, as he knew that strokemakers could be got out through frustration alone. These tactics did not endear him to the crowds, or the “old guard” back home who preferred the carefree attacking captaincy of the amateur, but they were very effective. The Yorkshireman also made bowling changes with great cunning, notably in the Fourth Test at Adelaide, and his ability to read a wicket during a match sometimes verged on second sight. Frank Tyson wrote that Hutton was “pursued by his own personal demons. He will never be completely content until the series has been won and he has exorcised his two personal tormentors, Lindwall and Miller. Not for a moment does he relax his own bottled up intensity”. There have been more inspirational captains and those with more flair and imagination, but few matched Len Hutton for sheer bloody-minded determination to win. He retired from the game soon after the tour and was knighted for services to cricket in 1956.

England had a strong batting line up: Len Hutton (averaging 56.67), Bill Edrich (40.00), Peter May (46.77), Colin Cowdrey (44.06), Denis Compton (50.06) and Trevor Bailey (29.74), with Tom Graveney (44.38) standing in for the injured Compton and out-of-form Edrich in the two Sydney Tests. Hutton was the holder of the then record Test score of 364 and had by far the best batting average of either team in 1950-51 (88.83) and 1953 (55.37). The main problem was finding a suitable opening partner once Cyril Washbrook (42.81) had retired. Reg Simpson (33.35) was the only other opener in the team and thought the job should be his. He had been on the sidelines for years, and had made 156 not out at Melbourne in the 1950-51 Ashes series when Australia was beaten for the first time in 12 years. Though chosen for the First Test he failed and did not find his form until late in the series. As a result, Hutton tried Bailey, Edrich and Graveney in the number two position. England’s opening-partnership problem remained unsolved until the emergence of John Edrich and Geoffrey Boycott in the 1960s. With the strong Australian bowling on their home turf, runs were hard to come by and only the obstinate stonewaller “Barnacle” Bailey exceeded his career Test average in a low-scoring series (37.00 over 29.74). Keith Miller wrote “I reckon he has saved more matches for England than anyone else since the war. His figures belie his worth to England. When a fielding side sees him coming in, a trough of deep depression immediately settles around the area”. Bill Edrich had been a Squadron Leader during the war and won the DFC for his part in the “RAF’s most audacious and dangerous low-level bombing raid” on Cologne in 1941. Edrich had “an immense relief that he survived” becoming a bon viveur who lived for the day and a gutsy batsman who was “almost indifferent to his own safety. No bowler is too fast to hook; no score too large to defy challenge.” Vic Wilson was a strapping Yorkshire farmer who could hit the ball many a mile, but failed to come to terms with the Australian pitches. The baby-faced Colin Cowdrey leak proof insulated water bottle, an Oxford undergraduate and the youngest member of the side, was a real find with his immaculate timing of the ball in the first of a record six tours of Australia. “The 22-year-old had received news of his father’s death at the start of the tour, but soldiered on, thanks to the advice and encouragement of his young teammate Peter May and father figure and captain Len Hutton”. Even so, Hutton made a small bet that Wilson would score more Test runs than Cowdrey on the tour Tyson worked on his batting and in 1954 “was building up a reputation as an all-rounder, scoring consistently with the bat”, and even batted at number seven on the tour. The team scored fewer Test runs than any England team in Australia for fifty years, but with such talent somebody usually got the vital runs and, except at Brisbane, England had the advantage.

Like Australia, England had a rich seam of bowling talent in the 1950s, so much so that they left behind fast bowler Fred Trueman (average 21.57), off-spinner Jim Laker (21.24) and slow left armer Tony Lock (25.58) who between them had taken 15 wickets in the Ashes-winning Fifth Test at the . The most likely explanation is that these outspoken cricketers were regarded as ‘difficult tourists’ by the MCC and Hutton thought that “Fiery Fred” had yet to mature as a bowler. As in every series since the war it looked like the England bowling would rest on the broad shoulders of Alex Bedser (24.89)—in 1954 his 231 wickets was the greatest haul in Test history. His lethal combination of in-swingers and leg-cutters had taken on the 1950-51 tour and in 1953. The unfortunate Bedser suffered from shingles, had seven catches dropped off him in the First Test, where he was hit for 1/131, was dropped and never got back into the side. He took to bowling to the Australian team in the nets and Keith Miller told him “You’re not too bad for a Test discard fabric pill remover. If you want a game you can come over and play with us”. In the last four Tests Hutton relied on the formidable bowling attack of Frank Tyson (18.76), Brian Statham (24.84), Trevor Bailey (29.21), Johnny Wardle (20.39) and Bob Appleyard (17.87). While “Typhoon” Tyson is justly famed for simply blasting the opposition away, the nagging accuracy of Statham and Bailey and the increasing spin of Wardle and Appleyard all served to tie down and frustrate the Australian batsmen. In fact the spinners took wickets with a faster strike rate (1 wicket every 57 balls) and at a lower average (21.57) than the fast bowlers. Like Simpson the fast swing bowler Peter Loader (22.51) thought that he should have played in the Tests and was unlucky not to do so. Big Jim McConnon also had a bad tour, he was never really seen as an adequate alternative for Jim Laker, didn’t find his form and was sent home early after a couple of painful injuries. Bill Edrich had opened the England bowling before the war, but rarely bowled in the 1950s. Len Hutton, Tom Graveney and Colin Cowdrey were part-time leg-spinners who were only really used in up-country games.

Evans is a grand keeper. On this tour he proved that he is the outstanding keeper in the world today. I have never seen a better keeper than Tallon as he was in England in 1948…but that time has passed. Evans is now the world best. That’s the way things go and the way we Australians are supposed to like it. Evans reminds me always of a fox terrier. He simply cannot stand still whilst on the cricket field. He moves with short, quick steps, dives, literally dives, at the ball when it is returned badly out of his reach…

England’s lamentable fielding at Brisbane – they dropped 14 catches – set a new low in Tests, made even worse by Australia’s obvious superiority in this department. As a result, the tourists worked on this aspect of their game and improved through the tour, they could hardly do worse. In the First Test the exuberant Godfrey Evans – the outstanding wicket-keeper of the era – was suffering from heat-stroke, so debutant Keith Andrew was behind the stumps; he dropped Arthur Morris on 0 (he made 153) and didn’t take any catches. Evans recovered and took over the rest of the series, taking a magnificent leg side catch off Tyson to dismiss Neil Harvey at Melbourne that precipitated Australia’s collapse. Len Hutton (57 catches), Peter May (42), Bill Edrich (39) and Tom Graveney (80) were fine slip catchers, and Colin Cowdrey (120) proved to be an excellent one, but Hutton had fibrositis, Edrich and Bedser proved ungainly in the field and Denis Compton not only had his knee problem, but broke his hand on a billboard at Brisbane vintage football jerseys. As a result, the young bowlers had to exhaust themselves in the outfield instead of resting between spells. Vic Wilson never got to grips with the Australian pitches, but was a noted fielder and was used as a substitute.

(As per the convention of the time, amateurs have their initials in front of their surname and professional players have their initials after their name, if their initials were used at all)

See Main Article – 1954-55 Ashes series

See Main Article – 1954-55 Ashes series

See Main Article – 1954-55 Ashes series

See Main Article – 1954-55 Ashes series

See Main Article – 1954-55 Ashes series

The English team had a stopover in Colombo en route to Australia and played a one-day single-innings match there against the Ceylon national team, which at that time did not have Test status.

Blind Witness

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Blind Witness est un groupe de metalcore québécois fondé en 2004 à Granby. Le 25 mai 2012 le groupe annonce qu’ils se séparent. Ils ont joué leur tout dernier concert à Montréal, Québec, Canada le 12 août au festival Heavy Montreal 2012. Le groupe se reformera par la suite afin de participer à l’édition 2015 du Amnesia Rockfest de Montebello au Canada.

Blind Witness fut fondé en 2004, par le vocaliste Jonathan Cabana, le guitariste Pier-Luc Desroches et le batteur Kevin Desroches. Maxime Lacroix, Miguel Lepage et Éric Morotti joindront plus tard le groupe, à la guitare, à la basse et à la batterie respectivement. Le groupe fait ses débuts sur scène en 2005 à Montréal.

Pendant l’écriture de leur second album, Blind Witness se joint au label Mediaskare Records et passe en studio pour enregistrer Nightmare on Providence Street. L’album leur vaut des critiques positives, comme Absolute Punk qui lui ocroit 84 pourcents dans une critique qui avance que “le metalcore est l’un des genres les plus détestés du métal” mais que “Blind Witness peut démontrer le contraire à beaucoup de fans de métal”.

Ils ont commencé en janvier 2011 leur tournée des États-Unis avec Chelsea Grin et Attila, où ils occupent la tête d’affiche.

En 2007, le groupe se joint à Victory/Torque Records.[citation nécessaire] En 2007, Blind Witness lance son premier album studio intitulé «Silences are Words».

Le 30 mars 2011, le groupe annonce qu’ils sont actuellement en studio pour l’écriture de leur troisième album.

Le 25 mai 2012 le groupe annonce qu’ils se séparent

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. Ils joueront leur tout dernier concert à Montréal, Qc, Canada le 12 août au festival Heavy Montreal 2012.

Nationale Verzehrsstudie II

Die Nationale Verzehrsstudie II (NVS II) ist eine bundesweite Erhebung zur Ernährungssituation von Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen.

Die erste Nationale Verzehrsstudie wurde zwischen 1985 und 1988 erhoben. Das Lebensmittelangebot und die Ernährungsgewohnheiten haben sich seitdem deutlich gewandelt. Mit der zweiten Nationalen Verzehrsstudie soll erforscht werden, wie sich der Lebensmittelverzehr und die Nährstoffversorgung der in Deutschland lebenden Menschen verändert hat. Beispiel für die Veränderung ist der zunehmende Verzehr von Fast Food oder Convenience Food (küchenfertigen Gerichten wie Tiefkühlpizzen). Außerdem haben ausländische Gerichte (z. B. mediterrane oder asiatische Küche) Einzug gehalten und fast alle Obstsorten sind ganzjährig erhältlich (z. B. Erdbeeren im Winter aus Südafrika).

Durchgeführt wird die Studie von der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel in Karlsruhe. Auftraggeber ist das Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz. Die letzte repräsentative Erhebung liegt fast 20 Jahre zurück und betraf nur die alten Bundesländer. Aktuelle, für das Bundesgebiet repräsentative Informationen sind dringend erforderlich für Präventionsprogramme, die Verbraucheraufklärung sowie für konkrete Empfehlungen an Risikogruppen

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Auftraggeber war das Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz. Die Organisation und Auswertung übernahm ein NVS-Projektteam bei der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel, Karlsruhe, unter der Projektkoordination von Cornelie Pfau, zuvor: Christine Brombach, Ulrich Oltersdorf. Die Datenerhebung führte TNS Healthcare all stainless steel water bottle, München durch. Es wurden ca. 20.000 Teilnehmer im Alter von 14 bis 80 Jahren in 500 Studienzentren deutschlandweit auf Basis der Daten der Einwohnermeldeämter vom November 2005 bis Januar 2007 durch acht Untersuchungsteams mit jeweils vier Mitarbeitern befragt. Die Standzeit der Teams war jeweils drei Tage an jedem Ort. Jeder Teilnehmer erhielt auf Wunsch eine detaillierte Auswertung seiner Essensgewohnheiten.

Die Ergebnisse der NVS II wurden am 30. Januar 2008 veröffentlicht.

Die NVS II hat zum Ziel, für Deutschland repräsentative Daten zum aktuellen und üblichen Verzehr an Lebensmitteln aufzuzeigen und den Ernährungsstatus der Bevölkerung abzubilden silicone bottle sleeve. Die Verzehrsdaten ermöglichen Aussagen darüber, welche Nährstoffe die Bundesbürger zu sich nehmen. Untersucht wird beispielsweise, wie hoch der Fettanteil in der täglichen Kost ist und welche Vitamine oder Mineralstoffe mit der Nahrung aufgenommen werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Menge an Lebensmitteln erhoben, inwieweit z. B. angereicherte Lebensmittel oder Bio-Lebensmittel verzehrt werden.

Zusätzlich werden Körpergröße und -gewicht, Angaben zur körperlichen Aktivität und soziodemographische Daten (Alter, Geschlecht etc.) ermittelt. Diese Angaben geben Auskunft über den allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand.

Angaben zu Ernährungsgewohnheiten (wer isst wann, wo, was) geben wichtige Hinweise für individuelle und alltagstaugliche Ernährungsempfehlungen.

Bundesweit wurden zwischen November 2005 und Januar 2007 rund 20.000 deutschsprachige Personen aus 500 zufällig ausgewählten Gemeinden befragt. Die Teilnehmer waren zwischen 14 und 80 Jahre alt und lebten in Privathaushalten. Der lange Untersuchungszeitraum wurde gewählt, um auch saisonale Effekte zu berücksichtigen.

Das persönliche Interview wurde an einem für den Teilnehmer nahegelegenen Ort, z. B. der Grundschule, durchgeführt. Dabei wurden die üblichen Ernährungsgewohnheiten sowie die Körpermaße ermittelt. Der aktuelle Verzehr der letzten 24 Stunden wurde anschließend, innerhalb der folgenden zwei Monate, an zwei zufällig ausgewählten Tagen in telefonischen Interviews erfragt.

Insgesamt wurden fünf Methoden zur Datenerhebung bei der NVS II angewandt: